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Philosophy in America in 1994
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Special Report of the Committee on the Status and Future of the Profession

Survey Summary

In 1994 the Committee on the Status and Future of the Profession of the American Philosophical Association conducted a survey intended to gather as much useful information as possible about departments in the U.S. in which philosophy is taught. Survey forms, which had been developed for the occasion over a period of several years (first within the Committee, and then with comments and suggestions from the APA's Board of Officers), were mailed to all departments in the country on the APA's master list. These forms, which were designed to be machine-readable for purposes of data analysis, did not ask respondents to identify themselves or their departments, in an attempt to gain the participation of those who might be concerned about confidentiality. This anonymity may have had its advantages, but it also had the disadvantage of making it virtually impossible to know which departments had and had not responded, and so to be able to contact those who did not respond. Several follow-up mailings to all departments were sent, however, and the deadline for responses was extended several times, in an attempt to ensure that participation in the survey was as complete as possible.

It is difficult to know precisely how complete that participation was, because we discovered (through inquiries from recipients of the mailings) that a substantial number of the departments on the APA's master list are not departments at all, but rather single individuals responsible for the teaching of philosophy at small schools. We have no way of knowing how many of the "departments" which did not respond were in fact cases of this sort. What we do know is that we received approximately 500 survey forms that were at least partially filled out. Even if that is only two-thirds of the actual departments in which there are at least several individuals who teach philosophy courses (which would seem a reasonable guesstimate), that is a large enough number and proportion to yield information that is both useful and reliable. In any event, it is considerably more information about more things relating to the institutional life of the profession in this country than we have ever had. (Perhaps, by the time the next such survey is undertaken, the communications revolution will have brought us to the point that it can all be done electronically, and that every department will have a chair or secretary willing and able to answer the questions and use the medium.)

The complete results of the survey, tabulated in a number of different ways, are now available. Some survey questions pertain only to departments with graduate programs, and so were answered by far fewer departments than the questions in the much longer first part of the survey. The information gathered about particular courses taught is presented only in totals for all departments responding. The responses to many of the survey questions, however, are tabulated and presented in four different ways-summed (all departments responding), and in three "splits." One split presents the information breaking apart the responses from departments at public and at private institutions. A second split breaks apart the responses from departments with undergraduate only programs and departments with undergraduate and graduate programs. And a third split breaks apart the responses from independent (i.e. philosophy only) departments and combined departments.

The data have been split in these ways as well as summed because summed totals sometimes are misleading, masking significant differences between departments of these different sorts. And indeed there are a good many such differences-though there are also many similarities. This is hardly news; but the actual information is needed in order to discover precisely what the differences are and how great they are. (Although the survey questionnaire was designed to attempt to avoid the problem of questions left unanswered, there were in fact unanswered questions on a good many of those returned, with the consequence that the total numbers of responses to particular questions seldom equal the total number of forms returned.)

General Information


Fully half of the departments responding are at state-supported public institutions. A little over a quarter (28%) are private with religious affiliations, while only one in eight (16%) are at private non-sectarian schools. (Of the 117 departments at sectarian schools, a third are Catholic, followed by 12% Methodist, 10% Baptist, 9% Presbyterian, and 8% Lutheran.) Half (53%) are at graduate-degree granting universities, and another third (35%) at four-year colleges; but only 13% offer Ph.D. degree programs, with another 8% offering MA-only graduate degree programs. Half (54%) of all responding departments offer undergraduate major programs only, and a quarter offer neither graduate nor undergraduate degree programs. A majority (58%) are independent departments; a quarter are combined with some other discipline (typically religion or religious studies), while the remainder (18%) are folded into larger combinations of disciplines.

Split notes: Whereas 62% of the private institutions represented are four-year colleges, only 15% of the public institutions are four-year colleges. And while 39% of the publics are Ph.D.-granting universities, only 17% of the privates are Ph.D.­ granting. Two-thirds of the privates have undergraduate majors only, contrasted with 43% of the publics; but the remainder of the publics are split evenly between those with graduate programs and those with neither graduate nor undergraduate programs in philosophy (28% in each case). Only 12% of the privates have graduate programs in philosophy.

Comparable fractions of publics and privates departments are independent and combined. Only half of the undergraduate-only departments are independent philosophy departments, however, versus 90% of those with graduate programs. Most of the departments with no undergraduate majors are combined departments, nearly half of which (47%) have no philosophy major. Three in five of the independent departments have undergrad majors only, while a third have graduate programs.

In the great majority of cases the executive officer (EO) has the title of "chair" rather than "head"; but the chairs are elected in only about a third (36%) of the departments reporting. Nearly two-thirds thus have appointed chairs, heads or other such (presumably non-elected) executive officers. In nearly half (46%), EOs receive both salary increments and teaching load reductions; but in one in five departments they receive neither. In a quarter of the departments reporting, at least one other department officer in addition to the EO receives a teaching load reduction. Quite remarkably, four out of every five departments (78%) have neither executive nor advisory committees; but this may well be because most are small enough to make such committees unnecessary.

Split notes: Only a quarter of the privates have elected chairs, in contrast to nearly half (44%) of the publics. Appointed EOs are much more common at the privates. It is much more common for EOs at the privates to be uncompensated (37% versus only 10% at the publics). Only a quarter of the departmental EOs at the privates receive both salary increments and teaching load reductions, versus two­ thirds at the publics.

Nearly all EOs in graduate departments (97%) are compensated, whereas a quarter of those in undergrad departments are not; and for 84% this involves both salary increments and teaching load reductions (with 11% receiving research/travel funds as well). Three in ten publics departments have some sort of executive or advisory committee, versus only one in twelve at the privates. Half of the graduate departments do, in contrast to only 15% of the undergraduate departments. Independent and combined departments do not differ significantly in these respects.

Only one department in six is at an institution with an undergraduate student population of over 20,000 students. Three in five are at schools with undergraduate enrollments of less than 10,000, with half under 5,000 and nearly a third (31%) under 2,000. Not surprisingly, therefore, undergraduate philosophy enrollments exceed 500 per term at only two departments in five (38%). A quarter report 50 or more philosophy majors (all years) in a typical academic year, with one in five having no philosophy majors, and two in five having fewer than 20.

Split notes: Three in five privates have student bodies of under 2000 students, with another quarter between 2000 and 5000; whereas only 7% of the publics have under 2000 students, and three-quarters have more than 5000, with half having more than 10,000. This is reflected in the fact that only one department in six among the privates has philosophy enrollments of more that 500 per semester, whereas more than half of the publics do. The privates have proportionately higher numbers of majors, however. Half of the publics departments have over 30 majors in a typical year, as do a quarter of the much smaller privates.

Only one undergrad dept in five is in a school with over 10,000 students, in contrast to nearly two-thirds of the grad departments; and in three of five cases the enrollments at undergrad dept schools are under 5000 (versus one in six grad dept schools). At two in five grad dept schools the enrollments are over 20,000. As might be expected, therefore, philosophy enrollments are under 500 per term in three-fourths of the undergrad departments (versus only one in five grad dept schools), and are over 1000 per term in three in five grad departments but only 9% of the undergrad departments. In three-fourths of the undergrad departments there are under 30 majors; whereas in three-fourths of the grad departments there are over 30 majors, and in three in five there are over 50 (with one in five reporting 90- plus).

Nearly half (45%) of the independent departments are at institutions with over 10,000 total enrollment, versus one-third of the combined departments. A third of the combined departments have undergraduate philosophy enrollments of under 100 per term, versus only one in 12 of the independent departments; while a third of the independent departments have enrollments of over 1000 per term, in contrast to only 5% of the combined. Two in five of the independents have over 30 majors (and three in ten have over 50), versus only one in ten of the combined.

Undergraduate philosophy majors appear to be preponderantly male and overwhelmingly white. Half of all departments reporting say that less than 30% of their majors are women, with another third indicating that women make up 30--45% of their majors. Three in five report no African-American, Hispanic-American or Asian-American majors, with another one-quarter to one-third reporting only one or two majors in each ethnic category. Only 2% report more than four African­ American majors; only 5% report more than four Hispanic-American majors, and the same percentage report more than four Asian-American majors. A mere 12% report any Native American (First Nations) majors at all-and then usually only one or two.

Split notes :The numbers of majors in these categories at privates are slightly but not significantly higher than they are at publics. A quarter of the undergrad departments report that women make up less than 15% of their undergraduate majors, versus only 7% of the grad departments; but otherwise their profiles are fairly similar. The only departments to indicate that 60%-plus of their majors are women, however, are undergrad departments (16 in all, or 5% of the total number of undergrad departments reporting). On the other hand, two-thirds of all undergrad departments report no minority majors, whereas three in five grad departments report at least one or two African-American majors and one or two Hispanic-American majors; and nearly three-fourths of the grad departments report at least one or two Asian-American majors. 56% of the independents have over 30% women majors, versus 41% of the combined. Only a quarter of the combined have any majors at all in each of the minority categories, versus half of the independents.

Faculty

All undergraduate instruction in philosophy is delivered by tenured or tenure-track (TIT-track) faculty at only 28% of the departments reporting; and at one department in five less than 60% of all undergraduate enrollments are TIT-track-taught. Nearly a quarter of the departments (23%) say that this percentage is "lower'' now than in was in 1980, but only 7% say their percentage is "much lower" now than it was then. 31% report using undergraduates as teaching assistants in one capacity or another.

Split notes : As might be expected, the fraction of departments in which all instruction is delivered by TIT-track faculty is much higher at privates than at publics (two in five versus one in five). At a quarter of the publics, but at only 14% of the privates, less than 60% of the instruction is delivered by TIT-track faculty. Three in ten publics report that this figure has gone down since 1980, versus only half that number of privates.Also as might be expected, percentages of undergraduates taught by TIT-track faculty are higher in undergrad departments-100% in a third of them, versus one in eleven grad departments. In half of the latter, however, 80-99% are TIT-track­ faculty-taught, yielding 80-100% totals that are actually quite similar (61% in undergrad departments, 57% in grad departments). The involvement of non-TIT­ track faculty may be more of a factor in significant numbers of undergrad departments-as is suggested by the fact that nearly all of the departments reporting that less than 40% of their total undergraduate enrollments are TIT-track­ taught are undergrad departments (one in ten of them). Indeed, whereas only one in five grad departments reports this figure to be more than 20%, it is reported to be more than 20% by two in five undergrad departments. A third of the grad departments, however, versus only one in five of the undergrad departments, indicated that their percentage of TIT-track-taught undergraduates has declined since 1980.

Less than 60% of the undergraduates enrolled in philosophy courses are taught by TIT-track faculty in three in ten of the combined, versus one in ten of the independents; while 80-100% are taught by TIT-track faculty in nearly two-thirds (65%) of the independents, but in only half (52%) of the combined. Neither group notes significantly more change than the other in this respect since 1980.

The total number of tenured philosophy faculty reported in the 460 departments providing this information is a surprisingly low 1,645. There are more than 6 tenured faculty in only a third of the departments, with 3-6 in another third, and 0-2 in the remaining third. Only one department in ten has more than two tenured women faculty; and more than half (55%) have none. Only one in 20 departments has any tenured African-American faculty at all; and only 1% have two of them. Virtually the same situation exists with respect to tenured Hispanic-American faculty; and only a slightly greater percentage (7%) report one or more tenured Asian-American faculty. Only 1% (four departments) report any tenured Native American faculty. Nearly one in five report one or more tenured international Anglophone faculty, and one in twelve report one or more tenured other international faculty.

Split notes: Since privates are typically smaller, it is not surprising that their numbers of tenured faculty are significantly smaller. Half of the departments at privates have 0-2 tenured faculty, versus a quarter of the publics; and nearly a quarter of the publics have more than ten, versus only 8% of the privates. Two­ thirds of the privates have no tenured women faculty, whereas more than half of the publics have at least one. The minuscule numbers of minority faculty do not differ significantly between them.

It further is not surprising that there are far fewer tenured faculty in undergrad than grad departments. There are six or fewer tenured faculty in four of five undergrad departments (and 0-2 in 44% of them), versus only one of six grad departments; and there are more than ten tenured faculty in more than half of the grad departments (and more than 15 in a quarter of them), versus only 5% of the undergrad departments. Moreover, there are more than two tenured women in only 6% of the undergrad departments, and none at all in two-thirds of them. There are no tenured women in one of five grad departments, one or two in 58% of them, and more than two in only 21%.

There are African-American tenured faculty in 10% of the grad departments, but in only 3% of the undergrad departments. The same figures apply in the case of Asian-Americans. Tenured Hispanic-Americans differ only in that they are to be found in only 5% of the grad departments. While there also are relatively few undergrad departments with tenured international faculty (one in eight having one or more Anglophones, and one in 12 having one or more others), three in five grad departments have at least one tenured international Anglophone, and a quarter have at least one other tenured international faculty member.

Half of the combined have 0-2 tenured faculty in philosophy, versus less than a quarter of the independents; and while a quarter of the independents have more than ten, only one in twelve of the combined do. Two-thirds of the combines have no tenured women, versus 47% of the independents. The figures for minorities do not differ significantly between them. A quarter of the independents have one or more tenured international Anglophone faculty (versus one in ten of the combined), and one in six have one or more tenured other international faculty (versus one in twelve combined).

At a third (35%) of the departments there are no untenured tenure-track (T-track) faculty; and at nearly half there are only one or two such faculty. There are more than two junior tenure-track faculty at only one department in five. The total number of such faculty reported is a mere 415. There are two or more T-track women faculty in only one department in ten, with another quarter (27%) of the departments having one-and with more than three in five (63%) having none. Only one department in 20 (28 of the 456 departments reporting) has any T-track African-American faculty, with slightly fewer havihg either Hispanic-American or Asian-American T-track faculty (17 departments in both cases). A mere seven departments have any T-track Native American faculty. One in ten has one or more Anglophone international T-track faculty, and one in 12 has one or more other international T-track faculty.

Split notes: There are no untenured T-track faculty in 32% of the publics departments and 39% of the privates. These figures are reflected in the fact that there are no untenured T-track women in 58% of the publics departments and 68% of the privates. There are untenured T-track African-Americans in one in ten publics, but in virtually none of the privates (only one private department in the entire country reported a single one). The publics have a slight edge in the other minority categories as well.

Two in five undergrad departments have no untenured TIT-track faculty, versus one in five grad departments. Two grad departments in five, on the other hand, have more than two, versus only 13% of the undergrad departments. Three grad departments in five have at least one untenured T-track woman, and 22% have more than one. A quarter of the undergrad departments have one, but only 7% have more than one. One grad dept in ten has an untenured T-track African­ American, versus one undergrad dept in twenty. The numbers for other minorities are smaller, with grad departments having a slight edge. There are few international faculty on T-track in undergrad departments; but one in five grad departments reports one or more Anglophones, and nearly one in five reports one or more others.

Three in ten independents have one or more untenured T-track faculty, versus 57% of the combined. Three in ten combined have one or more women in this status, versus 44% of the independents.The numbers for minorities do not differ appreciably between them. A substantial fraction of the departments employ non-TIT-track faculty (i.e., faculty who are neither tenured nor on tenure-track, and who do not have such positions elsewhere). More than a third (35%) employ one or two such faculty, and another third-plus (37%) employ three or more, with one in five departments employing five or more, and 50 departments employing seven or more. One or more women are employed in this capacity in two of five departments. The figures for African­ American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American Native American and international philosophers closely parallel their T-track figures.

Split notes : A somewhat higher fraction of publics (three-quarters) than privates (two-thirds) report employing non-TIT-track faculty. Perhaps owing to their differential sizes, a quarter of the publics report employing five or more such faculty, versus only half that fraction of privates. Nearly half of the publics report women among the non-TIT-track faculty they employ, versus only a third of the privates. The figures for grad and undergrad departments are similar. The same applies to independent and combined departments, although a quarter of the combined employ five or more such faculty, versus only one in six of the independents.

Relatively few departments (18%) report employing any TIT-track (tenure or tenure-track) faculty under the age of 30. A third of them report employing two or more TIT-track faculty in their 30s, but only one in ten departments has more than three in this age group. Nearly half (44%) have two or more in their 40s (two or three in most cases). Roughly the same applies to TIT-track faculty in their 50s. Only one department in five reports having two or more TIT-track faculty in their 60s-again, two or three in most cases. And only a handful of departments (2%) report having more than one TIT-track faculty members over 70 on regular employment. These figures tend to belie the picture of an aging professorate in the discipline.

This observation is underscored by the fact that only one in three departments report anticipating two or more retirements by the year 2000, with another quarter anticipating one. A little more than half anticipate one or more further retirements by 2005, and three of five anticipate an additional one or more by 2010. These figures do not translate into large numbers. Only two departments in five report any sort of retirement policy with significant or even negotiable inducements. Teaching by emeritus faculty is said to be permitted but poorly compensated at nearly half of the institutions represented; but it is also said to be encouraged at least selectively at three in ten of them.

Split notes: The publics, with larger numbers of faculty than the privates on average, have more faculty in each age group. This makes comparisons on thebasis of our data difficult. It is perhaps significant, however that 71% of the privates (versus less than half of the publics) have 0 or 1 faculty in their 50s, and 83% (versus 76% of the publics) have 0 or 1 faculty in their 60s. They also anticipate significantly fewer retirements than do the publics, and report fewer early retirement initiatives.

Grad departments also have larger numbers of faculty, making comparisons relatively meaningless. It is of some significance, however, that three in ten undergrad departments have two or more Trr-track faculty in their 30s, 37% have two or more in their 40s, and a third have two or more in their 50s, but only one in eight has more than one in their 60s. Not surprisingly, therefore, only half expect any retirements by the year 2000, only half expect an additional one or more by 2005, and only half expect another one or more by 2010. Three in ten grad departments have at least one Tff-track faculty in their 20s, 57% have at least two in their 30s (with a quarter having four or more), two-thirds have two or more in their 40s (two in five having four or more), and 70% having two or more in their 50s (nearly half having four or more). These departments too, therefore, seem relatively youthful.

Fully half of the grad departments have only one or no TIT-track faculty in their 60s, and only 5% have any in their ?Os. A third therefore expect only one or no retirements by 2000, while only two in five expect three or more. Nearly half (45%) expect one or no additional retirements by 2005, with less than a quarter expecting an additional three or more. It is only by 2010 that a third expect another three or more retirements, with another 30% expecting two. Early retirement inducements are only slightly more common in grad departments than in undergrad departments.

Four in ten of the independents have two or more faculty in their 30s, versus three in ten of the combined. Half of the independents have two or more in their 40s, and also in their 50s, versus four in ten and three in ten combined. These data appear to reflect size rather than age disparities, however, because the independents also have more faculty in their 60s: three in ten have more than one, versus only one in ten of the combined. Two in five independents expect two or more retirements by 2000, versus less than a quarter of the combined; and the same difference applies to their expectations in 2005 and 2010 as well. Half of the independents report the possibility of early retirement inducements at their institutions, however, in contrast to just over a quarter of the combined.

In 1994 there were Trr-track faculty with salaries under $30,000 ($30K) in one department in eight. One in five reported that 20-40% of their faculty salaries were in the $30-40K range; and in one in ten 80% or more were in that range. A quarter of the departments reported that 20-40% were in the $40-50K range. In one in five 20-40% were $50-60K, with less than 20% in that range. 85% reported that less than 20% had salaries of $60K or more, while only one in ten had even 20-30% in that range. Only one in ten had as many as 20% of their faculty salaries above $70K. Among non-TIT-track faculty, a third of the departments reported that the salaries of 80% or more of these faculty were under $30K. Most other non-TIT-track faculty salaries were in the $30-40K range.

Salaries are fixed by collective bargaining rules at a quarter of the responding departments' institutions, and by institutional rules at another 17% of them. They are set departmentally (by the department executive officer or a department committee) at only one department in eight (13%). At nearly half salary determinations are made by higher administrators. They are reported to be largely "merit"-driven at only one department in five. Among those at which "merit"-based criteria are employed, departments are fairly evenly divided between those giving greater weight to "research, scholarship and professional activity" (RSPA) and those giving primary weight to teaching.

Split notes: Collective bargaining arrangements are much more common at publics (two in five departments) than at privates (a mere 3%). Salary determinations are made by institutional rules at a quarter of the privates (versus 12% of the publics), but most commonly-in two-thirds of the cases reported-by higher administrators (versus 28% of the publics). Across-the-board salary increases are the rule at most privates, however, in more than three-quarters of the departments reporting, versus 43% of the publics. Merit considerations are primary in a quarter of the publics, versus 17% of the privates. Moreover, merit criteria are teaching-oriented in more than three in five privates (62%), whereas they are RSPA-oriented in a comparable fraction of publics.

Collective bargaining is only somewhat more common among undergrad departments (one in four) than among grad departments (one in five). Salary determinations are fixed by either collective bargaining or institutional rules in three in ten grad departments versus 45% of the undergrad departments. In undergrad departments they are made far more often (in half of the cases) by higher administrators than within the department (in only 7%); whereas in grad departments they are made in a third of the cases by higher administrators and in 36% within the department. Across-the-board increases prevail in undergrad departments, with "merit" considerations predominating in only 15%; whereas "merit" predominates in two in five grad departments, and across-the-board in half. Where "merit" does figure, RSPA predominates in most grad departments (84%), while teaching is the dominant consideration in half of the undergrad departments.

Salary increases are mandated by contracts at 27% of the combined versus 17% of the independents. Across-the-board increases prevail among most of the rest of the combined; whereas "merit" increases prevail at a quarter of the independents. Where "merit" criteria are employed, teaching is the predominant consideration in 56% of the combined versus 40% of the independents; while RSPA predominates in 40% of the combined and two-thirds of the independents.

Six departments in seven (86%) now are on the semester system. The normal teaching load for TIT-track faculty is three courses per term in a third of the departments, and is four courses in more than another quarter (28%), with an additional one in ten having yet heavier loads of five or more courses per term. A two-course load prevails in only one department in six (16%). Another perspective is given by the normal number of hours per week in the classroom, which was reported to be 3-6 in a quarter of the departments, 7-9 in another quarter, and 1O or more in half of them, with one in eight reporting 13 or more contact hours per week as the norm. Very few departments report differential teaching loads. They are said to be "basically the same for all" in 85% of them. They are also said to be similar to teaching loads in other humanities and social-science departments at most institutions.

Split notes: Teaching loads for TIT-track faculty are fairly similar in publics and privates; but whereas a four-course-per-term load prevails in a higher percentage of privates (34%) than publics(24%), a course load of five or more courses per term is reported in 15% of the publics but in very few (2%) of the privates. There is more differentiation among teaching loads in the publics (where it varies in one in five departments) than in the privates (where it is the same for all in 92% of the departments).

As might be expected, teaching loads are much heavier in undergrad departments, in which only 6% have normal loads of two courses per term (versus half of the grad departments), and in which nearly half have normal loads of four courses or more (versus only 7% of grad departments). In more than half of the undergrad departments ten or more classroom/contact-hours per week is the norm, with only 17% having norms of six hours or less; whereas the norm is six hours or less in more than half of the grad departments, with only one in five being in the ten-hour­ plus range. Teaching loads are the same for all TIT-track faculty in most undergrad departments, but are differentiated in one in five grad departments.

Teaching loads also are much heavier in the combined departments than in the independents. Two-course loads are the norm in a quarter of the independents, but are virtually nonexistent in the combined (3%). On the other hand, three in five of the latter have loads of four or more courses per terms, versus only one in five of the independents. A third of the independents have norms of six contact hours or less per week, versus only one in ten of the combined; and while another third of the independents have norms of ten hours or more, such norms prevail in seven in ten combined.

Sabbatical leaves of absence are automatically or routinely granted at only two institutions in five. They granted commonly but competitively in a like number of departments, and are non-existent or rare in one in five. Temporarily reduced teaching loads under "released time" arrangements are possible either by application or negotiation in half of the departments, and by departmental discretion in one in six (17%). Leaves of absence without pay are routinely granted at less than half of the schools represented. At one in ten they are rarely granted; and at a third they are granted only sometimes, at administrative discretion.

Split notes : Sabbaticals are routinely granted at half of the privates, but at only three in ten of the publics. They are competitive at three in five of the publics, versus only two in five of the privates. On the other hand, a quarter of the publics departments have the discretion to grant temporarily reduced teaching loads, whereas very few (5%) of the privates do. Leaves of absence without pay are also granted routinely or at the discretion of the department more often at publics (62%) than at privates (45%).

Sabbaticals are nonexistent or rare in more than a quarter of the undergrad departments, whereas they are common in most grad departments (91%). They are routinely granted upon application in three in five grad departments, but in only 36% of undergrad departments. Leaves without pay are routinely granted in three­ fourths of the grad departments, but in only two in five undergrad departments.

Sabbaticals also are much less common in combined departments than they are in independents. The are nonexistent or rare in three in eight of the former, versus only one in eight of the latter; and they are routinely granted in more than half of the independents, but in only a quarter of the combined. Leaves without pay likewise are routinely granted in more than half of the former (57%), but in only a third of the latter (32%).

Rather surprisingly, only one department in six reports that it is smaller now than it was five years previously; and very few expect to decrease in size over the next five years. Roughly three in five report that they have stayed about the same size (57%) and expect to remain so (65%); but more than a quarter say that they have gotten larger, and a similar fraction expects to do so in the years ahead. Three in four say that they are usually able to make a new TIT-track appointment when a faculty member departs, either at the same rank or at entry level.

Split notes : More publics departments than privates departments (22% versus 11%) report that they are smaller than they were five years previously. Privates departments also seem to do better in being allowed to make replacement appointments (86% say they normally do, versus 68% of the privates); and one in five of the publics say that departing regular faculty are typically either replaced with non-TIT-track faculty or not replaced at all, versus only one in 12 of the privates.

A quarter of the undergrad departments say they are larger than they were five years ago, while 15% say they are smaller. A slightly larger fraction of grad departments (30%) say they are larger, but more of them (a quarter) also say they are now smaller. They also more commonly say that they often are not allowed toreplace departing regular faculty (13% versus 6% of undergrad departments). Independent and combined departments do not differ significantly in these respects.

Expectations of TIT-track faculty with respect to research, scholarship and professional activity (RSPA) vary greatly. In one department in six such activity is of high or even decisive importance; while in another one in six it is of little or no importance. In a third of the departments its importance is comparable to other duties, and in another third it is appreciated but not expected. Looked at another way: in half of the departments such activity is expected and valued at least as much as other duties (teaching, departmental service); while in the other half these other duties are primary.

Split notes : RSPA expectations are substantial (RSPA counts as much or more than other duties and activities) in three in five of the publics departments, but in only two in five of the privates. As one might expect, such expectations are much higher in grad departments, with nine in ten saying they are substantial, versus only two in five undergrad departments. They are also higher in the independents, nearly two-thirds of which indicated that they are substantial, versus just over one­ third (36%) of the combined.

Three departments in four report that one or more of their TIT-track faculty have authored or edited a book during the previous five years; and nearly a third (31%) reported that more that 40% of their faculty have done so. Three in ten departments report that 80% or more of their faculty are active publishers; and three in five report that at least 40% of their faculty may be so considered. Nearly half (44%) report that most of their TIT-track faculty regularly attend professional meetings; and only a quarter indicated that under 40% of their faculty do so. Two in five say that 60% or more of their faculty often (at least once per year) present papers elsewhere; while only a quarter put this figure at less than 20%. More than half report that at least 60% of their faculty are active members of professional societies, with 43% saying that 80% or more of their faculty are active in such societies. On the other hand, only one in five report that 60% or more of their TIT­ track faculty are significantly involved in refereeing for presses, journals and in tenure and promotion cases at other institutions; and in two of five departments few if any (less than 20%) do such things.

Split notes : These figures are quite similar at both publics and privates. They vary considerably between undergrad and grad departments. More than half of the grad departments report that 40% or more of their faculty have authored or edited books in the last five years, versus only a quarter of the undergrad departments; and more than half of the latter (versus only one in six grad departments) put this figure at under 20%. Nearly half of the undergrad departments say that less than 40% of their faculty are active publishers (versus 13% of the grad departments); while two-thirds of the grad departments say that 60% or more of their faculty are active publishers (versus a third of the undergrad departments). Similar figures obtain between these two groups for other forms of professional activity.

Only a quarter of the independents indicate that less than 40% of their faculty are active publishers, versus more than half of the combined; and only a quarter of the combined say that 60% or more of their faculty are active publishers, whereas more than half of the independents make this claim. Faculty in combined attend meetings and are active in professional societies with nearly the same frequency as faculty in independents; but the latter are significantly more active in presenting papers and refereeing.

Teaching and Research Environment

Tenured faculty have private offices in nine of ten departments, with most of the rest in two-person offices. Non-tenured tenure-track faculty fare nearly (but not quite) as well, with private offices in 77% of the departments reporting. Only half provide non-TIT-track faculty with private offices, with a quarter reporting that such faculty are given either no offices (14%) or space in offices shared by three or more people. Most departments (87%) provide TIT-track faculty with private phone lines. In seven of ten departments faculty may do whatever long-distance phoning they need to do "within reason." In another 14% faculty have long-distance calling quotas. In the remainder (13%) they must have departmental approval to make such calls, or else must do so at their own expense. As might be expected, the figures for faxing are comparable. In three in four, faculty have unlimited copying privileges ("within reason"); while in one in five faculty have copying quotas. Mailing privileges are unlimited (again "within reason") in most departments (84%), with quotas in one in ten.

Split notes : Conditions are somewhat better in most of these respects in privates departments than in publics departments (e.g. non-tenured T-track faculty have private offices in 84% of the privates versus 71% of the publics), though they are virtually even with respect to photocopying and mailing. Most tenured faculty in both grad and undergrad departments have private offices; but other faculty fare somewhat better in this respect in grad departments than in undergrad departments. Other conditions are quite similar in the two cases. The same applies with respect to independent versus combined departments.

Computers are now commonplace in the profession. In more than half of the departments (56%) faculty are provided with a PC upon request; and in another quarter faculty are sometimes given PCS, either upon application or by negotiation. Faculty must share department PCS in one department in ten, and have no access to PCS (unless self-purchased) in only one in twelve (8%). PCS are said to be frequently used by all faculty in two departments in five, and by most faculty in nearly all the rest. Only one department in twenty indicates that they are used only by a minority or a few faculty.

Split notes : Publics and privates are very similar here, as are independents and combined. Somewhat higher fractions of grad departments report that faculty are given PCS upon request, and also that most of their faculty frequently use them.

Conference travel support is virtually universal (for TIT-track faculty in all but 2% of the departments reporting). In one department in five, faculty have individual conference travel allotments. In another quarter, travel funds are administered by the department; while in a third of them application must be made to campus travel funds. In the remaining quarter travel support is obtainable from both sources. In nearly one department in five (18%) there is no specific limit on the number of trips for which support may be obtained; and in nearly two in five others (37%), support is obtainable for more than one trip. In two in five support is limited to one trip per year. In half of the departments no conditions are placed upon supported travel; and in another quarter the only requirement is that one have some departmental or professional role or responsibility. Only one in five requires that one be on the program in some capacity, with only one in ten requiring that one be making a presentation.

Split notes : There are individual conference travel support allotments at quarter of the privates, but at only 15% of the publics. No conditions are placed upon supported travel at nearly two-thirds of the privates (64%); whereas at three in five of the publics one must be on the program or have some role or responsibility to receive such support. Similarly, no conditions are placed on conference travel in more than half of the undergrad departments, but the above conditions must be met to receive travel support in three-fourths of the grad departments. The same applies to combined versus independent departments: no conditions are imposed in nearly three in five of the former; whereas they must be satisfied to receive support in nearly three in five of the latter.

Funds for research assistants are uncommon; but one department in four reports that support for research assistants is at least occasionally a possibility, with either department or campus funds. Assistance with manuscript preparation is provided, in one way or another, in four of five departments. Publication subventions are available, primarily by application for campus funds, in one department in three (36%).

Department office staffs are typically quite small. Two departments in five (38%) have only one part-time office staff person; and another 28% have only one full­ time person in the office. One in five has more than one full-time office staff. Only 12% have more than two full-time-equivalents (FTE).

Split notes : Given that privates department)) tend to be considerably smaller than publics departments, it is not surprising that three in five of the privates have only one part-time office staff person, versus just a quarter of the publics. Two in five of the publics have more than one FTE office staff, versus one in five of the privates. As one might also expect, few undergrad departments (only one in five) have more than one, with half having only one part-time person; whereas three­ quarters of the grad departments have more than one FTE, with nearly two in five having more than two. Independent and combined departments do not differ significantly in this respect.

Curricula

Introductory philosophy courses are required of all students at less than one in five of the institutions represented (18%), and of all philosophy majors at only one in ten. At three in five, however, they are one way to satisfy a requirement that all students must satisfy. They are taught as lecture courses (with or without discussion sections) at only one school in six (16%). The format of a mix of lecturing and discussion is the most common. It is the general rule in half of the departments, and is presumably one of the alternatives among the three in ten who employ a mix of different formats in their introductory courses. Three in five departments indicate that the typical size of their introductory course classes is between 20 and 40. It is rarely smaller (under 20) or much larger (in excess of 100), at only one school in 12 in each case. The average size is somewhat larger at a third of the schools, with one in five indicating an average in the 40-60 range. The average is over 60 in only one department in six.

Split notes : Introductory philosophy courses are required of all students at three in ten of the privates, versus only 7% of the publics. They are more commonly taught in a lecture format in the publics (21%) than in the privates (11%). They are typically under 40 students in 85% of the privates, versus only half of the publics; and while they average over 60 in a quarter of the publics (and over 100 in 12%), they average over 60 in only 5% of the privates (and over 100 in only three of those reporting).

Introductory philosophy courses are required of all students at one in five undergrad schools and at one in eight grad department schools. They are given in lecture format in one in eight undergrad departments, but in one in three grad departments. They average under 40 students in three-fourths of the undergrad departments, but in only 37% of the grad departments; and they average over 100 students in nearly three in ten grad departments, but in virtually no undergrad departments. Independent and combined departments do not differ significantly in these respects.

Introductory courses are taught by faculty at all ranks (or even primarily by senior faculty) in nine out of every ten departments. Quite remarkably, they are taught mainly by junior faculty at only 2% of the departments reporting. They are taught by a mix of faculty and grad students at only one department in eleven (9%). Nearly all departments (95%) report that the students taking them are mainly non­ majors. They are mainly freshmen and sophomores at more than half of the schools; but nearly half of the departments (44%) report a mix of upper- and lower­ level students in them. Intermediate courses too are taken mainly by non-majors at more than half of the schools (53%), and by a roughly equal mix of majors and non-majors at most of the rest (37%). Advanced courses, on the other hand, are taken mainly by majors at nearly half (44%), mainly by non-majors at one in five, and by a roughly equal mix at one in four. They are taken by a mix that includes grad students at one in ten schools.

Split notes : Introductory courses are taught partly or mainly by grad students in 11% of the publics, versus 5% of the privates. Their clientele consists mainly of freshmen and sophomores in three in five publics departments versus half of the privates.

They are taught by senior faculty or faculty of all ranks in nearly all undergrad departments; but they are taught by a mix of faculty and grad students in more than a third (36%) of the grad departments. The clientele is similar in both cases. Intermediate courses are taken mainly by non-majors in three of five undergrad departments and by two in five grad departments, and by a roughly equal mix in a third of the undergrad departments and nearly half of the grad departments. Advanced undergrad courses are taken by mixes of grad and undergrad students in more than a third of the grad departments. They are taken mainly by undergrad philosophy majors in roughly half of the departments in both groups, but mainly by non-majors in a quarter of the undergrad departments (versus 7% of the grad departments).

Introductory courses are almost entirely faculty-taught in combined departments, but are taught by a mix of faculty and grad students in one in eight of the independents. Their clientele is similar; but non-majors figure somewhat more importantly in intermediate and upper-level courses in combined departments.

At three schools in ten there is a single introductory course that includes ethics and logical reasoning. At another three in then there are three introductory courses: one in ethics, one in logical reasoning, and one of a general nature. Logical reasoning is taught in a separate introductory course in two departments in five (41%). Roughly the same number of departments offer separate courses in formal and informal logic. A quarter of the departments offer one logic course combining formal and informal logic; and one in six offers only a formal logic course, with a comparable number offering either none or only an informal logic course. Formal logic courses are required of majors in two departments in five, while another quarter require a course in either formal or informal logic. Three in ten have no such requirement.

Split notes : Single introductory courses are offered at 36% of the privates departments versus 22% of the publics; whereas 39% of the publics departments but only 17% of the privates operate on the three-course model. Half of the publics but only three in ten of the privates offer separate courses in formal and informal logic. More publics (46%) than privates (37%) require formal logic of their majors.

Single introductory courses are offered in a third of the undergrad departments, but in only 14% of the grad departments. Nearly two in five of the grad departments favor the three-course model, versus a quarter of the undergrad departments. Nearly two-thirds of the grad departments offer separate courses in formal and informal logic, versus little more that one-third of the undergrad departments. 55% of the grad departments require formal logic of their majors, versus 38% of the undergrad departments.

Combined departments favor single introductory courses somewhat more often than independents do (36% versus 22%). Half of the independents offer separate courses in formal and informal logic, versus three in ten combined. Half of the former require formal logic of their majors, in contrast to a third of the combined.

Some history of philosophy is required of majors in most departments (89%), with nearly four in five (77%) requiring courses in ancient Western philosophy and nearly the same number requiring early modern Western philosophy. Two-thirds require their majors to take courses in ethics, but only 37% require courses in theory of knowledge, only a third in metaphysics, and only one in ten in philosophy of mind. Philosophy is available as a "minor" to students majoring in other subjects at four schools in five (considerably more than offer a major in philosophy).

Split notes : These figures are quite similar for publics and privates. The same is true of grad and undergrad departments, though a slightly higher percentage of grad than undergrad departments require most of these things. Nearly all (96%) independent departments require some history of philosophy of their majors, versus 78% of the combined. The same pattern obtains in the requirement of the other kinds of courses indicated, with independents being more likely to require them than the combined.

Graduate Departments

Responses were received from nearly 80 departments with MA students in philosophy, and from over 80 departments with Ph.D. students. One department in five with MA students has fewer than five such students; but an equal number have between 10 and 20, and another one in five have 20 or more. In doctoral programs, a third indicate that they have under 10 Ph.D. students; while a quarter have over 40, and one in ten (seven of the departments responding) actually have more than 60. Roughly equal numbers of departments (a dozen or so in each case) have Ph.D. student cohorts numbering in the 20s, 30s, and 40s.

Split notes : Two in five publics graduate departments with MA students have 10 or more MA students, versus only one in six privates. Nearly half of the privates with Ph.D. programs (46%) have under ten Ph.D. students, versus only a quarter of the publics; but the fractions of both with under 20 Ph.D. students are nearly equal. Most of the Ph.D. departments over 40 Ph.D. students are publics, though a third of the privates reporting do so.

Three Ph.D. departments in five report percentages of women Ph.D. students under 30%, with one in five reporting under 10%. Only six of 79 departments reporting indicate percentages of women of 40% or more. Three departments in five report no African-American Ph.D. students; and the same is true in the case of Hispanic-Americans and Asian-Americans. One department in five has two or more African-American Ph.D. students, and another one in five has one. One in ten has two or more Hispanic-Americans, and nearly three in ten (28%) have one. Roughly the same figures obtain in the case of Asian-Americans. Only five reporting graduate departments (6%) have any Native American Ph.D. students at all.

Split notes : Publics and privates do not differ significantly in these respects.

Contrary to popular impression, fewer than half of all reporting Ph.D. departments have any international Asian doctoral students at all; and only one in ten has more than three. Fewer than half have any other international students either; although nearly half have at least one European student. Two in five have at least one international Anglophone student, with a third having two or more.

In the roughly 100 MA and Ph.D. departments reporting, graduate student teaching assistants serve as graders only in relatively few departments (14%). They serve as graders and discussion section leaders in one department in five; and they serve as independent-section instructors as well in nearly two-thirds of the departments (63%). They teach up to 20% of the total undergraduate enrollment in nearly half (44%) of the graduate departments reporting, and from 20-40% (or more in a few cases) in one department in five. Half of the departments say that this represents little change since 1980; but two in five say that the percentage has risen during this period, either somewhat (32%) or considerably (9%). Graduate students in philosophy serve as research assistants more than 10% of the time in only one graduate department in ten, occasionally but rarely in half of them, and not at all in a third of them.

Split notes : Graduate students serve as teaching assistants with independent­ section instructional responsibilities in roughly the same percentages of publics and privates with Ph.D. programs; but more publics (46%) than privates (25%) report that the percent of undergraduate enrollment they teach has increased since 1980.

Graduate Programs

Written prelims are still included among the degree requirements in three in five of the 66 Ph.D. programs responding. Nine in ten have some sort of history of philosophy requirement, which for seven in ten involves both ancient and early modern Western philosophy. Four in five have logic and ethics requirements. Two-thirds have theory of knowledge requirements, and slightly more (71%) have metaphysics requirements; but only one in four (28%) have separate philosophy of mind requirements. A quarter require proficiency in two foreign languages, and another 15% require either proficiency in two or high proficiency in one. A comparable total (37%) require proficiency in one language. The remaining quarter (23%) either require no foreign languages or do so only if a foreign language is considered necessary for the candidate's specialization. Nine of ten Ph.D. departments still require a dissertation, with the remainder allowing the alternative of a set of essays.

Split notes : Written prelims are required in three-quarters of the privates Ph.D. programs, but only in just over half of the publics. Nine in ten of the publics have a logic requirement, versus only a third of the privates. Publics programs also more often include ethics and theory of knowledge requirements. On the other hand, many more privates (63%) than publics (30%) require either proficiency in two foreign languages or high proficiency in one. In three of five publics versus just one in five privates reporting, there either is no such requirement or the requirement is proficiency in just one language.

In one in five Ph.D. programs, graduate students take graduate seminars exclusively. In roughly two in five (37%), their course work consists predominantly in graduate seminars, with some advanced undergrad/grad courses. In one in five programs most of the courses taken are combined advanced undergrad/grad courses; while in the remaining 23% graduate students take a mix of the two types of courses. In one in five programs non-philosophy courses are either required or encouraged; and in another one in five, taking such courses is permitted and common. In the remaining three in five programs this is either uncommon or not done.

Half of the departments make no provision for a minor in some other discipline as part of their Ph.D. programs. On the other hand minors are either encouraged or required in one department in five. They are available options in another third of the departments responding.

The most common response to the question of the typical length of time beyond the BA to the Ph.D. (43%) was six years. In one program in three it is five years (or less, in a few instances); but in one program in five it is seven years or more. In short: in two-thirds of the programs responding, the typical length of time is six years or more. In a quarter of the programs the Ph.D. completion rate is less than60%; and in another quarter it is 60-80%. Half of the departments report their completion rates to be more than 80%, with one in ten indicating that it is nearly 100%.

Split notes : A third of the privates reporting indicate that the typical length of time beyond the BA to the Ph.D. for their students is 7 or more years, versus half that fraction of the publics.

A third of the Ph.D. departments report receiving more than 140 applications per year in recent years, while another third have been receiving an average of less than 60. Most of the others are in the 80-120 range. 43 departments gave figures on the numbers of applications they received in 1994, which totaled 4525, or an average of slightly over 100 per department. (There is no way of knowing how many applicants these 4525 applications represent, since that figure obviously represents many multiple applications.)

Split notes : Two-thirds of the privates report receiving more than 80 applications, versus half of the publics; and 44% of the privates receive more than 140, versus a quarter of the publics.

Three departments in ten offer admission to less than 10% of those who apply, and another quarter offer admission to 10-20%. A further fifth offer admission to 20-30%. The remaining quarter have admission-offer rates from 30 to 70% (with only two departments indicating yet higher rates). Two departments in five offer financial aid to less than 10% of the applicants to their programs, while a third offer aid to 40% or more before all is said and done. Three in ten report acceptance rates of 80% or more among those to whom they offer aid, while a like number report acceptance rates of less than 60% from this group. For two in five programs the rate is reported to be 60-80.

Split notes : 42% of the privates offer admission to under 10% of their Ph.D. program applicants, versus a quarter of the publics. Two in five of both offer aid to under 10% of their applicants, but another two in five of the publics (versus a quarter of the privates) offer aid to over 30%, with 37% offering aid to over 40%.

In half of all reporting Ph.D. programs 80% or more of the graduate students in residence receive financial aid, with two in five reporting aid rates of 90% or more. In one program in three, however, less than 60% have aid, and in one in six less than 40% do. It is 60-80% in on. department in five. First-year full-aid rates excluding tuition (in 1994) exceeded $9,000 in more than a quarter of the departments reporting, and were less than $7,000 in another quarter, with the middle two quarters breaking evenly between those in the $7-8,000 and $8-9,000 ranges. High-end rates exceeded $11,000 in nearly one department in five, but remained below $8,000 in a quarter of the departments, and in the $8-9,000 range at another quarter.

Split notes : Half of the privates report 90% or more of their Ph.D. students on aid, versus a third of the publics; but their numbers over 80% are comparable.

One Ph.D. department in four awards a considerable number of graduate fellowships, either on a full-aid basis or combined with assistantships. Three in five have only a few fellowships of one sort or the other; and one in ten have none. Two departments in five offer multi-year fellowships. In the half that offer one-year fellowships, most allow for the possibility of their renewal by competition.

Split notes : Half of the privates report having a considerable number of fellowships, versus only one in five of the publics. At three in five of the privates but at only a third of the publics, moreover, multi-year fellowships are possible.

The average number of Ph.D.s awarded per year in recent years (early 90s) exceeded four in only one department in five. In nearly two in five (37%) the average was one or two per year; and in the remaining 44% it was three or four per year. Only one in five reported having placed an average of three or more students in T-track positions during the same period; and only a few more (29%) placed an average of two in such positions. Half reported placing an average of only one in a T-track position. One in four reported having placed an average of three or more in non-T-track positions, with the other three-quarters having placed an average of one or two in positions of this sort.

Split notes : These figures do not differ significantly for publics and privates.

Courses

The following post-introductory courses are offered either every term or every year in more than half of all departments responding: Ancient (54%), Early Modern (53%), Ethics (79%), Applied Ethics (61%), Formal/Symbolic Logic (56%).

Courses offered either every term or every year in less than half but more than a quarter of all departments: Social/Political (40%), Phil of Art (30%), Phil of Religion (41%), Phil of Natural Science (29%), Metaphysics (28%), Theory of Knowledge (28%).

Courses offered at least once every two years in more than 40% of all departments: Ancient Western (84%), Medieval (46%), Early Modern Western (82%), 19th Century (48%), 20th Century Continental (49%), 20th Century Analytic (48%), Ethics (90%), Social/Political (66%), Phil of Law (40%), Applied Ethics (70%), Phil of Art (53%), Phil of Religion (75%), Phil of Natural Science (55%), Formal/Symbolic Logic (71%), Metaphysics (52%), Theory of Knowledge (53%), Phil of Mind (43%), Existentialism (49%).

Additional courses offered at least once every two years by the percentage of responding departments indicated: American/Pragmatism (27%), Eastern/Asian (33%), Eastern/Indian (21%), Arabic/Islamic (5%), African (27%), Phil in/and/of Literature (27%), Phil of Social Science (19%), Phil of Mathematics (8%), Phil of Language (31%), Phil of Human Nature (19%), Phil and Feminism (35%), Phenomenology (26%), Phil of Technology (12%), Phil of Environment (23%), Recent Continental/Post-Structuralism (21%).

Courses not offered by at least 50% of the departments responding: American/Pragmatism (51%), Eastern/Asian (54%), Eastern/Indian (73%), Arabic/Islamic (92%), African (90%), Phil in/and/of Literature (56%), Phil of Social Science (66%), Phil of Mathematics (83%), Phil of Language (55%), Phil of Human Nature (74%), Phil and Feminism (50%), Phenomenology (61%), Phil of Technology (81%), Phil of Environment (69%), Recent Continental/Post­ Structuralism (63%).

Courses for which student demand is reported to be moderate or high by at least 40% of the departments responding: Ancient (65%), Early Modern (60%), 19th Century (40%), 20th Century Continental (40%), Ethics ( 85%), Social/Political (59%), Phil of Law (44%), Applied Ethics (61%), Phil of Art (48%), Phil of Religion (63%), Phil of Natural Science (42%), Formal/Symbolic Logic (54%), Theory of Knowledge (40%), Feminism (42%), Existentialism (50%).

Courses which are offered but for which student demand is reported to be /ow by at least 30% of departments responding: Medieval (31%), 20th Century Analytic (32%).

Courses in which enrollment trends are reported to be increasing either gradually or dramatically by at least 20% of the departments responding: Ethics (31%), Applied Ethics (33%).

The results of this final part of the survey contain relatively few surprises, and show rather clearly the relative stability of philosophy offerings and enrollments at most colleges and universities in the U.S. The details are of some interest, however, and are well worth examining-as are the responses to other questions in this survey, which have merely been summarized here. These data, together with a version of the present report, are being prepared for publication and will be available from the APA National Office.

Richard Schacht
for the Committee on the Status and Future of the Profession

The American Philosophical Association
University of Delaware
31 Amstel Avenue, Newark, DE 19716
Phone: 302.831.1112 | Fax: 302.831.8690
Email: info@apaonline.org