In 1994 the Committee on the Status and Future of the Profession of the
American Philosophical Association conducted a survey intended to
gather as much useful information as possible about departments in the
U.S. in which philosophy is taught. Survey forms, which had been
developed for the occasion over a period of several years (first within
the Committee, and then with comments and suggestions from the APA's
Board of Officers), were mailed to all departments in the country on
the APA's master list. These forms, which were designed to be
machine-readable for purposes of data analysis, did not ask respondents
to identify themselves or their departments, in an attempt to gain the
participation of those who might be concerned about confidentiality.
This anonymity may have had its advantages, but it also had the
disadvantage of making it virtually impossible to know which
departments had and had not responded, and so to be able to contact
those who did not respond. Several follow-up mailings to all
departments were sent, however, and the deadline for responses was
extended several times, in an attempt to ensure that participation in
the survey was as complete as possible.
It is difficult to know precisely how complete that participation was,
because we discovered (through inquiries from recipients of the
mailings) that a substantial number of the departments on the APA's
master list are not departments at all, but rather single individuals
responsible for the teaching of philosophy at small schools. We have no
way of knowing how many of the "departments" which did not respond were
in fact cases of this sort. What we do know is that we received
approximately 500 survey forms that were at least partially filled out.
Even if that is only two-thirds of the actual departments in which
there are at least several individuals who teach philosophy courses
(which would seem a reasonable guesstimate), that is a large enough
number and proportion to yield information that is both useful and
reliable. In any event, it is considerably more information about more
things relating to the institutional life of the profession in this
country than we have ever had. (Perhaps, by the time the next such
survey is undertaken, the communications revolution will have brought
us to the point that it can all be done electronically, and that every
department will have a chair or secretary willing and able to answer
the questions and use the medium.)
The complete results of the survey, tabulated in a number of different
ways, are now available. Some survey questions pertain only to
departments with graduate programs, and so were answered by far fewer
departments than the questions in the much longer first part of the
survey. The information gathered about particular courses taught is
presented only in totals for all departments responding. The responses
to many of the survey questions, however, are tabulated and presented
in four different ways-summed (all departments responding), and in
three "splits." One split presents the information breaking apart the
responses from departments at public and at private
institutions. A second split breaks apart the responses from
departments with undergraduate only programs and departments
with undergraduate and graduate programs. And a third split
breaks apart the responses from independent (i.e. philosophy
only) departments and combined departments.
The data have been split in these ways as well as summed because summed
totals sometimes are misleading, masking significant differences
between departments of these different sorts. And indeed there are a
good many such differences-though there are also many similarities.
This is hardly news; but the actual information is needed in order to
discover precisely what the differences are and how great they are.
(Although the survey questionnaire was designed to attempt to avoid the
problem of questions left unanswered, there were in fact unanswered
questions on a good many of those returned, with the consequence that
the total numbers of responses to particular questions seldom equal the
total number of forms returned.)
Fully half of the departments responding are at state-supported public
institutions. A little over a quarter (28%) are private with religious
affiliations, while only one in eight (16%) are at private
non-sectarian schools. (Of the 117 departments at sectarian schools, a
third are Catholic, followed by 12% Methodist, 10% Baptist, 9%
Presbyterian, and 8% Lutheran.) Half (53%) are at graduate-degree
granting universities, and another third (35%) at four-year colleges;
but only 13% offer Ph.D. degree programs, with another 8% offering
MA-only graduate degree programs. Half (54%) of all responding
departments offer undergraduate major programs only, and a quarter
offer neither graduate nor undergraduate degree programs. A majority
(58%) are independent departments; a quarter are combined with some
other discipline (typically religion or religious studies), while the
remainder (18%) are folded into larger combinations of disciplines.
Split notes: Whereas 62% of the private institutions represented are four-year
colleges, only 15% of the public institutions are four-year colleges.
And while 39% of the publics are Ph.D.-granting universities, only 17%
of the privates are Ph.D. granting. Two-thirds of the privates have
undergraduate majors only, contrasted with 43% of the publics; but the
remainder of the publics are split evenly between those with graduate
programs and those with neither graduate nor undergraduate programs in
philosophy (28% in each case). Only 12% of the privates have graduate
programs in philosophy.
Comparable fractions of publics and privates departments are
independent and combined. Only half of the undergraduate-only
departments are independent philosophy departments, however, versus 90%
of those with graduate programs. Most of the departments with no
undergraduate majors are combined departments, nearly half of which
(47%) have no philosophy major. Three in five of the independent
departments have undergrad majors only, while a third have graduate
In the great majority of cases the executive officer (EO) has the title
of "chair" rather than "head"; but the chairs are elected in only about
a third (36%) of the departments reporting. Nearly two-thirds thus have
appointed chairs, heads or other such (presumably non-elected)
executive officers. In nearly half (46%), EOs receive both salary
increments and teaching load reductions; but in one in five departments
they receive neither. In a quarter of the departments reporting, at
least one other department officer in addition to the EO receives a
teaching load reduction. Quite remarkably, four out of every five
departments (78%) have neither executive nor advisory committees; but
this may well be because most are small enough to make such committees
Split notes: Only a quarter of the privates have elected chairs, in contrast to
nearly half (44%) of the publics. Appointed EOs are much more common at
the privates. It is much more common for EOs at the privates to be
uncompensated (37% versus only 10% at the publics). Only a quarter of
the departmental EOs at the privates receive both salary increments and
teaching load reductions, versus two thirds at the publics.
Nearly all EOs in graduate departments (97%) are compensated, whereas a
quarter of those in undergrad departments are not; and for 84% this
involves both salary increments and teaching load reductions (with 11%
receiving research/travel funds as well). Three in ten publics
departments have some sort of executive or advisory committee, versus
only one in twelve at the privates. Half of the graduate departments
do, in contrast to only 15% of the undergraduate departments.
Independent and combined departments do not differ significantly in
Only one department in six is at an institution with an undergraduate
student population of over 20,000 students. Three in five are at
schools with undergraduate enrollments of less than 10,000, with half
under 5,000 and nearly a third (31%) under 2,000. Not surprisingly,
therefore, undergraduate philosophy enrollments exceed 500 per term at
only two departments in five (38%). A quarter report 50 or more
philosophy majors (all years) in a typical academic year, with one in
five having no philosophy majors, and two in five having fewer than 20.
Split notes: Three in five privates have student bodies of under 2000 students,
with another quarter between 2000 and 5000; whereas only 7% of the
publics have under 2000 students, and three-quarters have more than
5000, with half having more than 10,000. This is reflected in the fact
that only one department in six among the privates has philosophy
enrollments of more that 500 per semester, whereas more than half of
the publics do. The privates have proportionately higher numbers of
majors, however. Half of the publics departments have over 30 majors in
a typical year, as do a quarter of the much smaller privates.
Only one undergrad dept in five is in a school with over 10,000
students, in contrast to nearly two-thirds of the grad departments; and
in three of five cases the enrollments at undergrad dept schools are
under 5000 (versus one in six grad dept schools). At two in five grad
dept schools the enrollments are over 20,000. As might be expected,
therefore, philosophy enrollments are under 500 per term in
three-fourths of the undergrad departments (versus only one in five
grad dept schools), and are over 1000 per term in three in five grad
departments but only 9% of the undergrad departments. In three-fourths
of the undergrad departments there are under 30 majors; whereas in
three-fourths of the grad departments there are over 30 majors, and in
three in five there are over 50 (with one in five reporting 90- plus).
Nearly half (45%) of the independent departments are at institutions
with over 10,000 total enrollment, versus one-third of the combined
departments. A third of the combined departments have undergraduate
philosophy enrollments of under 100 per term, versus only one in 12 of
the independent departments; while a third of the independent
departments have enrollments of over 1000 per term, in contrast to only
5% of the combined. Two in five of the independents have over 30 majors
(and three in ten have over 50), versus only one in ten of the
Undergraduate philosophy majors appear to be preponderantly male and
overwhelmingly white. Half of all departments reporting say that less
than 30% of their majors are women, with another third indicating that
women make up 30--45% of their majors. Three in five report no
African-American, Hispanic-American or Asian-American majors, with
another one-quarter to one-third reporting only one or two majors in
each ethnic category. Only 2% report more than four African American
majors; only 5% report more than four Hispanic-American majors, and the
same percentage report more than four Asian-American majors. A mere 12%
report any Native American (First Nations) majors at all-and then
usually only one or two.
:The numbers of majors in these categories at privates are slightly but
not significantly higher than they are at publics. A quarter of the
undergrad departments report that women make up less than 15% of their
undergraduate majors, versus only 7% of the grad departments; but
otherwise their profiles are fairly similar. The only departments to
indicate that 60%-plus of their majors are women, however, are
undergrad departments (16 in all, or 5% of the total number of
undergrad departments reporting). On the other hand, two-thirds of all
undergrad departments report no minority majors, whereas three in five
grad departments report at least one or two African-American majors and
one or two Hispanic-American majors; and nearly three-fourths of the
grad departments report at least one or two Asian-American majors. 56%
of the independents have over 30% women majors, versus 41% of the
combined. Only a quarter of the combined have any majors at all in each
of the minority categories, versus half of the independents.
All undergraduate instruction in philosophy is delivered by tenured or
tenure-track (TIT-track) faculty at only 28% of the departments
reporting; and at one department in five less than 60% of all
undergraduate enrollments are TIT-track-taught. Nearly a quarter of the
departments (23%) say that this percentage is "lower'' now than in was
in 1980, but only 7% say their percentage is "much lower" now than it
was then. 31% report using undergraduates as teaching assistants in one
capacity or another.
: As might be expected, the fraction of departments in which all
instruction is delivered by TIT-track faculty is much higher at
privates than at publics (two in five versus one in five). At a quarter
of the publics, but at only 14% of the privates, less than 60% of the
instruction is delivered by TIT-track faculty. Three in ten publics
report that this figure has gone down since 1980, versus only half that
number of privates.Also as might be expected, percentages of
undergraduates taught by TIT-track faculty are higher in undergrad
departments-100% in a third of them, versus one in eleven grad
departments. In half of the latter, however, 80-99% are TIT-track
faculty-taught, yielding 80-100% totals that are actually quite similar
(61% in undergrad departments, 57% in grad departments). The
involvement of non-TIT track faculty may be more of a factor in
significant numbers of undergrad departments-as is suggested by the
fact that nearly all of the departments reporting that less than 40% of
their total undergraduate enrollments are TIT-track taught are
undergrad departments (one in ten of them). Indeed, whereas only one in
five grad departments reports this figure to be more than 20%, it is
reported to be more than 20% by two in five undergrad departments. A
third of the grad departments, however, versus only one in five of the
undergrad departments, indicated that their percentage of
TIT-track-taught undergraduates has declined since 1980.
Less than 60% of the undergraduates enrolled in philosophy courses are
taught by TIT-track faculty in three in ten of the combined, versus one
in ten of the independents; while 80-100% are taught by TIT-track
faculty in nearly two-thirds (65%) of the independents, but in only
half (52%) of the combined. Neither group notes significantly more
change than the other in this respect since 1980.
The total number of tenured philosophy faculty reported in the 460
departments providing this information is a surprisingly low 1,645.
There are more than 6 tenured faculty in only a third of the
departments, with 3-6 in another third, and 0-2 in the remaining third.
Only one department in ten has more than two tenured women faculty; and
more than half (55%) have none. Only one in 20 departments has any
tenured African-American faculty at all; and only 1% have two of them.
Virtually the same situation exists with respect to tenured
Hispanic-American faculty; and only a slightly greater percentage (7%)
report one or more tenured Asian-American faculty. Only 1% (four
departments) report any tenured Native American faculty. Nearly one in
five report one or more tenured international Anglophone faculty, and
one in twelve report one or more tenured other international faculty.
Split notes: Since privates are typically smaller, it is not surprising that their
numbers of tenured faculty are significantly smaller. Half of the
departments at privates have 0-2 tenured faculty, versus a quarter of
the publics; and nearly a quarter of the publics have more than ten,
versus only 8% of the privates. Two thirds of the privates have no
tenured women faculty, whereas more than half of the publics have at
least one. The minuscule numbers of minority faculty do not differ
significantly between them.
It further is not surprising that there are far fewer tenured faculty
in undergrad than grad departments. There are six or fewer tenured
faculty in four of five undergrad departments (and 0-2 in 44% of them),
versus only one of six grad departments; and there are more than ten
tenured faculty in more than half of the grad departments (and more
than 15 in a quarter of them), versus only 5% of the undergrad
departments. Moreover, there are more than two tenured women in only 6%
of the undergrad departments, and none at all in two-thirds of them.
There are no tenured women in one of five grad departments, one or two
in 58% of them, and more than two in only 21%.
There are African-American tenured faculty in 10% of the grad
departments, but in only 3% of the undergrad departments. The same
figures apply in the case of Asian-Americans. Tenured
Hispanic-Americans differ only in that they are to be found in only 5%
of the grad departments. While there also are relatively few undergrad
departments with tenured international faculty (one in eight having one
or more Anglophones, and one in 12 having one or more others), three in
five grad departments have at least one tenured international
Anglophone, and a quarter have at least one other tenured international
Half of the combined have 0-2 tenured faculty in philosophy, versus
less than a quarter of the independents; and while a quarter of the
independents have more than ten, only one in twelve of the combined do.
Two-thirds of the combines have no tenured women, versus 47% of the
independents. The figures for minorities do not differ significantly
between them. A quarter of the independents have one or more tenured
international Anglophone faculty (versus one in ten of the combined),
and one in six have one or more tenured other international faculty
(versus one in twelve combined).
At a third (35%) of the departments there are no untenured tenure-track
(T-track) faculty; and at nearly half there are only one or two such
faculty. There are more than two junior tenure-track faculty at only
one department in five. The total number of such faculty reported is a
mere 415. There are two or more T-track women faculty in only one
department in ten, with another quarter (27%) of the departments having
one-and with more than three in five (63%) having none. Only one
department in 20 (28 of the 456 departments reporting) has any T-track
African-American faculty, with slightly fewer havihg either
Hispanic-American or Asian-American T-track faculty (17 departments in
both cases). A mere seven departments have any T-track Native American
faculty. One in ten has one or more Anglophone international T-track
faculty, and one in 12 has one or more other international T-track
notes: There are no untenured T-track faculty in 32% of the publics
departments and 39% of the privates. These figures are reflected in the
fact that there are no untenured T-track women in 58% of the publics
departments and 68% of the privates. There are untenured T-track
African-Americans in one in ten publics, but in virtually none of the
privates (only one private department in the entire country reported a
single one). The publics have a slight edge in the other minority
categories as well.
Two in five undergrad departments have no untenured TIT-track faculty,
versus one in five grad departments. Two grad departments in five, on
the other hand, have more than two, versus only 13% of the undergrad
departments. Three grad departments in five have at least one untenured
T-track woman, and 22% have more than one. A quarter of the undergrad
departments have one, but only 7% have more than one. One grad dept in
ten has an untenured T-track African American, versus one undergrad
dept in twenty. The numbers for other minorities are smaller, with grad
departments having a slight edge. There are few international faculty
on T-track in undergrad departments; but one in five grad departments
reports one or more Anglophones, and nearly one in five reports one or
Three in ten independents have one or more untenured T-track faculty,
versus 57% of the combined. Three in ten combined have one or more
women in this status, versus 44% of the independents.The numbers for
minorities do not differ appreciably between them. A substantial
fraction of the departments employ non-TIT-track faculty (i.e., faculty
who are neither tenured nor on tenure-track, and who do not have such
positions elsewhere). More than a third (35%) employ one or two such
faculty, and another third-plus (37%) employ three or more, with one in
five departments employing five or more, and 50 departments employing
seven or more. One or more women are employed in this capacity in two
of five departments. The figures for African American,
Hispanic-American, Asian-American Native American and international
philosophers closely parallel their T-track figures.
: A somewhat higher fraction of publics (three-quarters) than privates
(two-thirds) report employing non-TIT-track faculty. Perhaps owing to
their differential sizes, a quarter of the publics report employing
five or more such faculty, versus only half that fraction of privates.
Nearly half of the publics report women among the non-TIT-track faculty
they employ, versus only a third of the privates. The figures for grad
and undergrad departments are similar. The same applies to independent
and combined departments, although a quarter of the combined employ
five or more such faculty, versus only one in six of the independents.
Relatively few departments (18%) report employing any TIT-track (tenure
or tenure-track) faculty under the age of 30. A third of them report
employing two or more TIT-track faculty in their 30s, but only one in
ten departments has more than three in this age group. Nearly half
(44%) have two or more in their 40s (two or three in most cases).
Roughly the same applies to TIT-track faculty in their 50s. Only one
department in five reports having two or more TIT-track faculty in
their 60s-again, two or three in most cases. And only a handful of
departments (2%) report having more than one TIT-track faculty members
over 70 on regular employment. These figures tend to belie the picture
of an aging professorate in the discipline.
This observation is underscored by the fact that only one in three
departments report anticipating two or more retirements by the year
2000, with another quarter anticipating one. A little more than half
anticipate one or more further retirements by 2005, and three of five
anticipate an additional one or more by 2010. These figures do not
translate into large numbers. Only two departments in five report any
sort of retirement policy with significant or even negotiable
inducements. Teaching by emeritus faculty is said to be permitted but
poorly compensated at nearly half of the institutions represented; but
it is also said to be encouraged at least selectively at three in ten
Split notes: The publics, with larger numbers of faculty than the privates on
average, have more faculty in each age group. This makes comparisons on
thebasis of our data difficult. It is perhaps significant, however
that 71% of the privates (versus less than half of the publics) have 0
or 1 faculty in their 50s, and 83% (versus 76% of the publics) have 0
or 1 faculty in their 60s. They also anticipate significantly fewer
retirements than do the publics, and report fewer early retirement
Grad departments also have larger numbers of faculty, making
comparisons relatively meaningless. It is of some significance,
however, that three in ten undergrad departments have two or more
Trr-track faculty in their 30s, 37% have two or more in their 40s, and
a third have two or more in their 50s, but only one in eight has more
than one in their 60s. Not surprisingly, therefore, only half expect
any retirements by the year 2000, only half expect an additional one or
more by 2005, and only half expect another one or more by 2010. Three
in ten grad departments have at least one Tff-track faculty in their
20s, 57% have at least two in their 30s (with a quarter having four or
more), two-thirds have two or more in their 40s (two in five having
four or more), and 70% having two or more in their 50s (nearly half
having four or more). These departments too, therefore, seem relatively
Fully half of the grad departments have only one or no TIT-track
faculty in their 60s, and only 5% have any in their ?Os. A third
therefore expect only one or no retirements by 2000, while only two in
five expect three or more. Nearly half (45%) expect one or no
additional retirements by 2005, with less than a quarter expecting an
additional three or more. It is only by 2010 that a third expect
another three or more retirements, with another 30% expecting two.
Early retirement inducements are only slightly more common in grad
departments than in undergrad departments.
Four in ten of the independents have two or more faculty in their 30s,
versus three in ten of the combined. Half of the independents have two
or more in their 40s, and also in their 50s, versus four in ten and
three in ten combined. These data appear to reflect size rather than
age disparities, however, because the independents also have more
faculty in their 60s: three in ten have more than one, versus only one
in ten of the combined. Two in five independents expect two or more
retirements by 2000, versus less than a quarter of the combined; and
the same difference applies to their expectations in 2005 and 2010 as
well. Half of the independents report the possibility of early
retirement inducements at their institutions, however, in contrast to
just over a quarter of the combined.
In 1994 there were Trr-track faculty with salaries under $30,000 ($30K)
in one department in eight. One in five reported that 20-40% of their
faculty salaries were in the $30-40K range; and in one in ten 80% or
more were in that range. A quarter of the departments reported that
20-40% were in the $40-50K range. In one in five 20-40% were $50-60K,
with less than 20% in that range. 85% reported that less than 20% had
salaries of $60K or more, while only one in ten had even 20-30% in that
range. Only one in ten had as many as 20% of their faculty salaries
above $70K. Among non-TIT-track faculty, a third of the departments
reported that the salaries of 80% or more of these faculty were under
$30K. Most other non-TIT-track faculty salaries were in the $30-40K
Salaries are fixed by collective bargaining rules at a quarter of the
responding departments' institutions, and by institutional rules at
another 17% of them. They are set departmentally (by the department
executive officer or a department committee) at only one department in
eight (13%). At nearly half salary determinations are made by higher
administrators. They are reported to be largely "merit"-driven at only
one department in five. Among those at which "merit"-based criteria are
employed, departments are fairly evenly divided between those giving
greater weight to "research, scholarship and professional activity"
(RSPA) and those giving primary weight to teaching.
Split notes: Collective bargaining arrangements are much more common at publics
(two in five departments) than at privates (a mere 3%). Salary
determinations are made by institutional rules at a quarter of the
privates (versus 12% of the publics), but most commonly-in two-thirds
of the cases reported-by higher administrators (versus 28% of the
publics). Across-the-board salary increases are the rule at most
privates, however, in more than three-quarters of the departments
reporting, versus 43% of the publics. Merit considerations are primary
in a quarter of the publics, versus 17% of the privates. Moreover,
merit criteria are teaching-oriented in more than three in five
privates (62%), whereas they are RSPA-oriented in a comparable fraction
Collective bargaining is only somewhat more common among undergrad
departments (one in four) than among grad departments (one in five).
Salary determinations are fixed by either collective bargaining or
institutional rules in three in ten grad departments versus 45% of the
undergrad departments. In undergrad departments they are made far more
often (in half of the cases) by higher administrators than within the
department (in only 7%); whereas in grad departments they are made in a
third of the cases by higher administrators and in 36% within the
department. Across-the-board increases prevail in undergrad
departments, with "merit" considerations predominating in only 15%;
whereas "merit" predominates in two in five grad departments, and
across-the-board in half. Where "merit" does figure, RSPA predominates
in most grad departments (84%), while teaching is the dominant
consideration in half of the undergrad departments.
Salary increases are mandated by contracts at 27% of the combined
versus 17% of the independents. Across-the-board increases prevail
among most of the rest of the combined; whereas "merit" increases
prevail at a quarter of the independents. Where "merit" criteria are
employed, teaching is the predominant consideration in 56% of the
combined versus 40% of the independents; while RSPA predominates in 40%
of the combined and two-thirds of the independents.
Six departments in seven (86%) now are on the semester system. The
normal teaching load for TIT-track faculty is three courses per term in
a third of the departments, and is four courses in more than another
quarter (28%), with an additional one in ten having yet heavier loads
of five or more courses per term. A two-course load prevails in only
one department in six (16%). Another perspective is given by the normal
number of hours per week in the classroom, which was reported to be 3-6
in a quarter of the departments, 7-9 in another quarter, and 1O or more
in half of them, with one in eight reporting 13 or more contact hours
per week as the norm. Very few departments report differential teaching
loads. They are said to be "basically the same for all" in 85% of them.
They are also said to be similar to teaching loads in other humanities
and social-science departments at most institutions.
Split notes: Teaching loads for TIT-track faculty are fairly similar in publics
and privates; but whereas a four-course-per-term load prevails in a
higher percentage of privates (34%) than publics(24%), a course load of
five or more courses per term is reported in 15% of the publics but in
very few (2%) of the privates. There is more differentiation among
teaching loads in the publics (where it varies in one in five
departments) than in the privates (where it is the same for all in 92%
of the departments).
As might be expected, teaching loads are much heavier in undergrad
departments, in which only 6% have normal loads of two courses per term
(versus half of the grad departments), and in which nearly half have
normal loads of four courses or more (versus only 7% of grad
departments). In more than half of the undergrad departments ten or
more classroom/contact-hours per week is the norm, with only 17% having
norms of six hours or less; whereas the norm is six hours or less in
more than half of the grad departments, with only one in five being in
the ten-hour plus range. Teaching loads are the same for all TIT-track
faculty in most undergrad departments, but are differentiated in one in
five grad departments.
Teaching loads also are much heavier in the combined departments than
in the independents. Two-course loads are the norm in a quarter of the
independents, but are virtually nonexistent in the combined (3%). On
the other hand, three in five of the latter have loads of four or more
courses per terms, versus only one in five of the independents. A third
of the independents have norms of six contact hours or less per week,
versus only one in ten of the combined; and while another third of the
independents have norms of ten hours or more, such norms prevail in
seven in ten combined.
Sabbatical leaves of absence are automatically or routinely granted at
only two institutions in five. They granted commonly but competitively
in a like number of departments, and are non-existent or rare in one in
five. Temporarily reduced teaching loads under "released time"
arrangements are possible either by application or negotiation in half
of the departments, and by departmental discretion in one in six (17%).
Leaves of absence without pay are routinely granted at less than half
of the schools represented. At one in ten they are rarely granted; and
at a third they are granted only sometimes, at administrative
: Sabbaticals are routinely granted at half of the privates, but at
only three in ten of the publics. They are competitive at three in five
of the publics, versus only two in five of the privates. On the other
hand, a quarter of the publics departments have the discretion to grant
temporarily reduced teaching loads, whereas very few (5%) of the
privates do. Leaves of absence without pay are also granted routinely
or at the discretion of the department more often at publics (62%) than
at privates (45%).
Sabbaticals are nonexistent or rare in more than a quarter of the
undergrad departments, whereas they are common in most grad departments
(91%). They are routinely granted upon application in three in five
grad departments, but in only 36% of undergrad departments. Leaves
without pay are routinely granted in three fourths of the grad
departments, but in only two in five undergrad departments.
Sabbaticals also are much less common in combined departments than they
are in independents. The are nonexistent or rare in three in eight of
the former, versus only one in eight of the latter; and they are
routinely granted in more than half of the independents, but in only a
quarter of the combined. Leaves without pay likewise are routinely
granted in more than half of the former (57%), but in only a third of
the latter (32%).
Rather surprisingly, only one department in six reports that it is
smaller now than it was five years previously; and very few expect to
decrease in size over the next five years. Roughly three in five report
that they have stayed about the same size (57%) and expect to remain so
(65%); but more than a quarter say that they have gotten larger, and a
similar fraction expects to do so in the years ahead. Three in four say
that they are usually able to make a new TIT-track appointment when a
faculty member departs, either at the same rank or at entry level.
: More publics departments than privates departments (22% versus 11%)
report that they are smaller than they were five years previously.
Privates departments also seem to do better in being allowed to make
replacement appointments (86% say they normally do, versus 68% of the
privates); and one in five of the publics say that departing regular
faculty are typically either replaced with non-TIT-track faculty or not
replaced at all, versus only one in 12 of the privates.
A quarter of the undergrad departments say they are larger than they
were five years ago, while 15% say they are smaller. A slightly larger
fraction of grad departments (30%) say they are larger, but more of
them (a quarter) also say they are now smaller. They also more commonly
say that they often are not allowed toreplace departing regular
faculty (13% versus 6% of undergrad departments). Independent and
combined departments do not differ significantly in these respects.
Expectations of TIT-track faculty with respect to research, scholarship
and professional activity (RSPA) vary greatly. In one department in six
such activity is of high or even decisive importance; while in another
one in six it is of little or no importance. In a third of the
departments its importance is comparable to other duties, and in
another third it is appreciated but not expected. Looked at another
way: in half of the departments such activity is expected and valued at
least as much as other duties (teaching, departmental service); while
in the other half these other duties are primary.
: RSPA expectations are substantial (RSPA counts as much or more than
other duties and activities) in three in five of the publics
departments, but in only two in five of the privates. As one might
expect, such expectations are much higher in grad departments, with
nine in ten saying they are substantial, versus only two in five
undergrad departments. They are also higher in the independents, nearly
two-thirds of which indicated that they are substantial, versus just
over one third (36%) of the combined.
Three departments in four report that one or more of their TIT-track
faculty have authored or edited a book during the previous five years;
and nearly a third (31%) reported that more that 40% of their faculty
have done so. Three in ten departments report that 80% or more of their
faculty are active publishers; and three in five report that at least
40% of their faculty may be so considered. Nearly half (44%) report that most of their TIT-track faculty
regularly attend professional meetings; and only a quarter indicated
that under 40% of their faculty do so. Two in five say that 60% or more
of their faculty often (at least once per year) present papers
elsewhere; while only a quarter put this figure at less than 20%. More
than half report that at least 60% of their faculty are active members
of professional societies, with 43% saying that 80% or more of their
faculty are active in such societies. On the other hand, only one in
five report that 60% or more of their TIT track faculty are
significantly involved in refereeing for presses, journals and in
tenure and promotion cases at other institutions; and in two of five
departments few if any (less than 20%) do such things.
: These figures are quite similar at both publics and privates. They
vary considerably between undergrad and grad departments. More than
half of the grad departments report that 40% or more of their faculty
have authored or edited books in the last five years, versus only a
quarter of the undergrad departments; and more than half of the latter
(versus only one in six grad departments) put this figure at under 20%.
Nearly half of the undergrad departments say that less than 40% of
their faculty are active publishers (versus 13% of the grad
departments); while two-thirds of the grad departments say that 60% or
more of their faculty are active publishers (versus a third of the
undergrad departments). Similar figures obtain between these two groups
for other forms of professional activity.
Only a quarter of the independents indicate that less than 40% of their
faculty are active publishers, versus more than half of the combined;
and only a quarter of the combined say that 60% or more of their
faculty are active publishers, whereas more than half of the
independents make this claim. Faculty in combined attend meetings and
are active in professional societies with nearly the same frequency as
faculty in independents; but the latter are significantly more active
in presenting papers and refereeing.
Teaching and Research Environment
Tenured faculty have private offices in nine of ten departments, with
most of the rest in two-person offices. Non-tenured tenure-track
faculty fare nearly (but not quite) as well, with private offices in
77% of the departments reporting. Only half provide non-TIT-track
faculty with private offices, with a quarter reporting that such
faculty are given either no offices (14%) or space in offices shared by
three or more people. Most departments (87%) provide TIT-track faculty
with private phone lines. In seven of ten departments faculty may do
whatever long-distance phoning they need to do "within reason." In
another 14% faculty have long-distance calling quotas. In the remainder
(13%) they must have departmental approval to make such calls, or else
must do so at their own expense. As might be expected, the figures for
faxing are comparable. In three in four, faculty have unlimited copying
privileges ("within reason"); while in one in five faculty have copying
quotas. Mailing privileges are unlimited (again "within reason") in
most departments (84%), with quotas in one in ten.
: Conditions are somewhat better in most of these respects in privates
departments than in publics departments (e.g. non-tenured T-track
faculty have private offices in 84% of the privates versus 71% of the
publics), though they are virtually even with respect to photocopying
and mailing. Most tenured faculty in both grad and undergrad
departments have private offices; but other faculty fare somewhat
better in this respect in grad departments than in undergrad
departments. Other conditions are quite similar in the two cases. The
same applies with respect to independent versus combined departments.
Computers are now commonplace in the profession. In more than half of
the departments (56%) faculty are provided with a PC upon request; and
in another quarter faculty are sometimes given PCS, either upon
application or by negotiation. Faculty must share department PCS in one
department in ten, and have no access to PCS (unless self-purchased) in
only one in twelve (8%). PCS are said to be frequently used by all
faculty in two departments in five, and by most faculty in nearly all
the rest. Only one department in twenty indicates that they are used
only by a minority or a few faculty.
: Publics and privates are very similar here, as are independents and
combined. Somewhat higher fractions of grad departments report that
faculty are given PCS upon request, and also that most of their faculty
frequently use them.
Conference travel support is virtually universal (for TIT-track faculty
in all but 2% of the departments reporting). In one department in five,
faculty have individual conference travel allotments. In another
quarter, travel funds are administered by the department; while in a
third of them application must be made to campus travel funds. In the
remaining quarter travel support is obtainable from both sources. In
nearly one department in five (18%) there is no specific limit on the
number of trips for which support may be obtained; and in nearly two in
five others (37%), support is obtainable for more than one trip. In two
in five support is limited to one trip per year. In half of the
departments no conditions are placed upon supported travel; and in
another quarter the only requirement is that one have some departmental
or professional role or responsibility. Only one in five requires that
one be on the program in some capacity, with only one in ten requiring
that one be making a presentation.
: There are individual conference travel support allotments at quarter
of the privates, but at only 15% of the publics. No conditions are
placed upon supported travel at nearly two-thirds of the privates
(64%); whereas at three in five of the publics one must be on the
program or have some role or responsibility to receive such support.
Similarly, no conditions are placed on conference travel in more than
half of the undergrad departments, but the above conditions must be met
to receive travel support in three-fourths of the grad departments. The
same applies to combined versus independent departments: no conditions
are imposed in nearly three in five of the former; whereas they must be
satisfied to receive support in nearly three in five of the latter.
Funds for research assistants are uncommon; but one department in four
reports that support for research assistants is at least occasionally a
possibility, with either department or campus funds. Assistance with
manuscript preparation is provided, in one way or another, in four of
five departments. Publication subventions are available, primarily by
application for campus funds, in one department in three (36%).
Department office staffs are typically quite small. Two departments in
five (38%) have only one part-time office staff person; and another 28%
have only one full time person in the office. One in five has more
than one full-time office staff. Only 12% have more than two
: Given that privates department)) tend to be considerably smaller than
publics departments, it is not surprising that three in five of the
privates have only one part-time office staff person, versus just a
quarter of the publics. Two in five of the publics have more than one
FTE office staff, versus one in five of the privates. As one might also
expect, few undergrad departments (only one in five) have more than
one, with half having only one part-time person; whereas three
quarters of the grad departments have more than one FTE, with nearly
two in five having more than two. Independent and combined departments
do not differ significantly in this respect.
Introductory philosophy courses are required of all students at less
than one in five of the institutions represented (18%), and of all
philosophy majors at only one in ten. At three in five, however, they
are one way to satisfy a requirement that all students must satisfy.
They are taught as lecture courses (with or without discussion
sections) at only one school in six (16%). The format of a mix of
lecturing and discussion is the most common. It is the general rule in
half of the departments, and is presumably one of the alternatives
among the three in ten who employ a mix of different formats in their
introductory courses. Three in five departments indicate that the
typical size of their introductory course classes is between 20 and 40.
It is rarely smaller (under 20) or much larger (in excess of 100), at
only one school in 12 in each case. The average size is somewhat larger
at a third of the schools, with one in five indicating an average in
the 40-60 range. The average is over 60 in only one department in six.
: Introductory philosophy courses are required of all students at three
in ten of the privates, versus only 7% of the publics. They are more
commonly taught in a lecture format in the publics (21%) than in the
privates (11%). They are typically under 40 students in 85% of the
privates, versus only half of the publics; and while they average over
60 in a quarter of the publics (and over 100 in 12%), they average over
60 in only 5% of the privates (and over 100 in only three of those
Introductory philosophy courses are required of all students at one in
five undergrad schools and at one in eight grad department schools.
They are given in lecture format in one in eight undergrad departments,
but in one in three grad departments. They average under 40 students in
three-fourths of the undergrad departments, but in only 37% of the grad
departments; and they average over 100 students in nearly three in ten
grad departments, but in virtually no undergrad departments.
Independent and combined departments do not differ significantly in
Introductory courses are taught by faculty at all ranks (or even
primarily by senior faculty) in nine out of every ten departments.
Quite remarkably, they are taught mainly by junior faculty at only 2%
of the departments reporting. They are taught by a mix of faculty and
grad students at only one department in eleven (9%). Nearly all
departments (95%) report that the students taking them are mainly non
majors. They are mainly freshmen and sophomores at more than half of
the schools; but nearly half of the departments (44%) report a mix of
upper- and lower level students in them. Intermediate courses too are
taken mainly by non-majors at more than half of the schools (53%), and
by a roughly equal mix of majors and non-majors at most of the rest
(37%). Advanced courses, on the other hand, are taken mainly by majors
at nearly half (44%), mainly by non-majors at one in five, and by a
roughly equal mix at one in four. They are taken by a mix that includes
grad students at one in ten schools.
: Introductory courses are taught partly or mainly by grad students in
11% of the publics, versus 5% of the privates. Their clientele consists
mainly of freshmen and sophomores in three in five publics departments
versus half of the privates.
They are taught by senior faculty or faculty of all ranks in nearly all
undergrad departments; but they are taught by a mix of faculty and grad
students in more than a third (36%) of the grad departments. The
clientele is similar in both cases. Intermediate courses are taken
mainly by non-majors in three of five undergrad departments and by two
in five grad departments, and by a roughly equal mix in a third of the
undergrad departments and nearly half of the grad departments. Advanced
undergrad courses are taken by mixes of grad and undergrad students in
more than a third of the grad departments. They are taken mainly by
undergrad philosophy majors in roughly half of the departments in both
groups, but mainly by non-majors in a quarter of the undergrad
departments (versus 7% of the grad departments).
Introductory courses are almost entirely faculty-taught in combined
departments, but are taught by a mix of faculty and grad students in
one in eight of the independents. Their clientele is similar; but
non-majors figure somewhat more importantly in intermediate and
upper-level courses in combined departments.
At three schools in ten there is a single introductory course that
includes ethics and logical reasoning. At another three in then there
are three introductory courses: one in ethics, one in logical
reasoning, and one of a general nature. Logical reasoning is taught in
a separate introductory course in two departments in five (41%).
Roughly the same number of departments offer separate courses in formal
and informal logic. A quarter of the departments offer one logic course
combining formal and informal logic; and one in six offers only a
formal logic course, with a comparable number offering either none or
only an informal logic course. Formal logic courses are required of
majors in two departments in five, while another quarter require a
course in either formal or informal logic. Three in ten have no such
: Single introductory courses are offered at 36% of the privates
departments versus 22% of the publics; whereas 39% of the publics
departments but only 17% of the privates operate on the three-course
model. Half of the publics but only three in ten of the privates offer
separate courses in formal and informal logic. More publics (46%) than
privates (37%) require formal logic of their majors.
Single introductory courses are offered in a third of the undergrad
departments, but in only 14% of the grad departments. Nearly two in
five of the grad departments favor the three-course model, versus a
quarter of the undergrad departments. Nearly two-thirds of the grad
departments offer separate courses in formal and informal logic, versus
little more that one-third of the undergrad departments. 55% of the
grad departments require formal logic of their majors, versus 38% of
the undergrad departments.
Combined departments favor single introductory courses somewhat more
often than independents do (36% versus 22%). Half of the independents
offer separate courses in formal and informal logic, versus three in
ten combined. Half of the former require formal logic of their majors,
in contrast to a third of the combined.
Some history of philosophy is required of majors in most departments
(89%), with nearly four in five (77%) requiring courses in ancient
Western philosophy and nearly the same number requiring early modern
Western philosophy. Two-thirds require their majors to take courses in
ethics, but only 37% require courses in theory of knowledge, only a
third in metaphysics, and only one in ten in philosophy of mind.
Philosophy is available as a "minor" to students majoring in other
subjects at four schools in five (considerably more than offer a major
: These figures are quite similar for publics and privates. The same is
true of grad and undergrad departments, though a slightly higher
percentage of grad than undergrad departments require most of these
things. Nearly all (96%) independent departments require some history
of philosophy of their majors, versus 78% of the combined. The same
pattern obtains in the requirement of the other kinds of courses
indicated, with independents being more likely to require them than the
Responses were received from nearly 80 departments with MA students in
philosophy, and from over 80 departments with Ph.D. students. One
department in five with MA students has fewer than five such students;
but an equal number have between 10 and 20, and another one in five
have 20 or more. In doctoral programs, a third indicate that they have
under 10 Ph.D. students; while a quarter have over 40, and one in ten
(seven of the departments responding) actually have more than 60.
Roughly equal numbers of departments (a dozen or so in each case) have
Ph.D. student cohorts numbering in the 20s, 30s, and 40s.
: Two in five publics graduate departments with MA students have 10 or
more MA students, versus only one in six privates. Nearly half of the
privates with Ph.D. programs (46%) have under ten Ph.D. students,
versus only a quarter of the publics; but the fractions of both with
under 20 Ph.D. students are nearly equal. Most of the Ph.D. departments
over 40 Ph.D. students are publics, though a third of the privates
reporting do so.
Three Ph.D. departments in five report percentages of women Ph.D.
students under 30%, with one in five reporting under 10%. Only six of
79 departments reporting indicate percentages of women of 40% or more.
Three departments in five report no African-American Ph.D. students;
and the same is true in the case of Hispanic-Americans and
Asian-Americans. One department in five has two or more
African-American Ph.D. students, and another one in five has one. One
in ten has two or more Hispanic-Americans, and nearly three in ten
(28%) have one. Roughly the same figures obtain in the case of
Asian-Americans. Only five reporting graduate departments (6%) have any
Native American Ph.D. students at all.
: Publics and privates do not differ significantly in these respects.
Contrary to popular impression, fewer than half of all reporting Ph.D.
departments have any international Asian doctoral students at all; and
only one in ten has more than three. Fewer than half have any other
international students either; although nearly half have at least one
European student. Two in five have at least one international
Anglophone student, with a third having two or more.
In the roughly 100 MA and Ph.D. departments reporting, graduate student
teaching assistants serve as graders only in relatively few departments
(14%). They serve as graders and discussion section leaders in one
department in five; and they serve as independent-section instructors
as well in nearly two-thirds of the departments (63%). They teach up to
20% of the total undergraduate enrollment in nearly half (44%) of the graduate departments reporting, and from
20-40% (or more in a few cases) in one department in five. Half of the
departments say that this represents little change since 1980; but two
in five say that the percentage has risen during this period, either
somewhat (32%) or considerably (9%). Graduate students in philosophy
serve as research assistants more than 10% of the time in only one
graduate department in ten, occasionally but rarely in half of them,
and not at all in a third of them.
: Graduate students serve as teaching assistants with independent
section instructional responsibilities in roughly the same percentages
of publics and privates with Ph.D. programs; but more publics (46%)
than privates (25%) report that the percent of undergraduate enrollment
they teach has increased since 1980.
Written prelims are still included among the degree requirements in
three in five of the 66 Ph.D. programs responding. Nine in ten have
some sort of history of philosophy requirement, which for seven in ten
involves both ancient and early modern Western philosophy. Four in five
have logic and ethics requirements. Two-thirds have theory of knowledge
requirements, and slightly more (71%) have metaphysics requirements;
but only one in four (28%) have separate philosophy of mind
requirements. A quarter require proficiency in two foreign languages,
and another 15% require either proficiency in two or high proficiency
in one. A comparable total (37%) require proficiency in one language.
The remaining quarter (23%) either require no foreign languages or do
so only if a foreign language is considered necessary for the
candidate's specialization. Nine of ten Ph.D. departments still require
a dissertation, with the remainder allowing the alternative of a set of
: Written prelims are required in three-quarters of the privates Ph.D.
programs, but only in just over half of the publics. Nine in ten of the
publics have a logic requirement, versus only a third of the privates.
Publics programs also more often include ethics and theory of knowledge
requirements. On the other hand, many more privates (63%) than publics
(30%) require either proficiency in two foreign languages or high
proficiency in one. In three of five publics versus just one in five
privates reporting, there either is no such requirement or the
requirement is proficiency in just one language.
In one in five Ph.D. programs, graduate students take graduate seminars
exclusively. In roughly two in five (37%), their course work consists
predominantly in graduate seminars, with some advanced undergrad/grad
courses. In one in five programs most of the courses taken are combined
advanced undergrad/grad courses; while in the remaining 23% graduate
students take a mix of the two types of courses. In one in five
programs non-philosophy courses are either required or encouraged; and
in another one in five, taking such courses is permitted and common. In
the remaining three in five programs this is either uncommon or not
Half of the departments make no provision for a minor in some other
discipline as part of their Ph.D. programs. On the other hand minors
are either encouraged or required in one department in five. They are
available options in another third of the departments responding.
The most common response to the question of the typical length of time
beyond the BA to the Ph.D. (43%) was six years. In one program in three
it is five years (or less, in a few instances); but in one program in
five it is seven years or more. In short: in two-thirds of the programs
responding, the typical length of time is six years or more. In a
quarter of the programs the Ph.D. completion rate is less than60%; and
in another quarter it is 60-80%. Half of the departments report their
completion rates to be more than 80%, with one in ten indicating that
it is nearly 100%.
: A third of the privates reporting indicate that the typical length of
time beyond the BA to the Ph.D. for their students is 7 or more years,
versus half that fraction of the publics.
A third of the Ph.D. departments report receiving more than 140
applications per year in recent years, while another third have been
receiving an average of less than 60. Most of the others are in the
80-120 range. 43 departments gave figures on the numbers of
applications they received in 1994, which totaled 4525, or an average
of slightly over 100 per department. (There is no way of knowing how
many applicants these 4525 applications represent, since that figure
obviously represents many multiple applications.)
: Two-thirds of the privates report receiving more than 80
applications, versus half of the publics; and 44% of the privates
receive more than 140, versus a quarter of the publics.
Three departments in ten offer admission to less than 10% of those who
apply, and another quarter offer admission to 10-20%. A further fifth
offer admission to 20-30%. The remaining quarter have admission-offer
rates from 30 to 70% (with only two departments indicating yet higher
rates). Two departments in five offer financial aid to less than 10% of
the applicants to their programs, while a third offer aid to 40% or
more before all is said and done. Three in ten report acceptance rates
of 80% or more among those to whom they offer aid, while a like number
report acceptance rates of less than 60% from this group. For two in
five programs the rate is reported to be 60-80.
: 42% of the privates offer admission to under 10% of their Ph.D.
program applicants, versus a quarter of the publics. Two in five of
both offer aid to under 10% of their applicants, but another two in
five of the publics (versus a quarter of the privates) offer aid to
over 30%, with 37% offering aid to over 40%.
In half of all reporting Ph.D. programs 80% or more of the graduate
students in residence receive financial aid, with two in five reporting
aid rates of 90% or more. In one program in three, however, less than
60% have aid, and in one in six less than 40% do. It is 60-80% in on.
department in five. First-year full-aid rates excluding tuition (in
1994) exceeded $9,000 in more than a quarter of the departments
reporting, and were less than $7,000 in another quarter, with the
middle two quarters breaking evenly between those in the $7-8,000 and
$8-9,000 ranges. High-end rates exceeded $11,000 in nearly one
department in five, but remained below $8,000 in a quarter of the
departments, and in the $8-9,000 range at another quarter.
: Half of the privates report 90% or more of their Ph.D. students on
aid, versus a third of the publics; but their numbers over 80% are
One Ph.D. department in four awards a considerable number of graduate
fellowships, either on a full-aid basis or combined with
assistantships. Three in five have only a few fellowships of one sort
or the other; and one in ten have none. Two departments in five offer
multi-year fellowships. In the half that offer one-year fellowships,
most allow for the possibility of their renewal by competition.
: Half of the privates report having a considerable number of
fellowships, versus only one in five of the publics. At three in five
of the privates but at only a third of the publics, moreover,
multi-year fellowships are possible.
The average number of Ph.D.s awarded per year in recent years (early
90s) exceeded four in only one department in five. In nearly two in
five (37%) the average was one or two per year; and in the remaining
44% it was three or four per year. Only one in five reported having
placed an average of three or more students in T-track positions during
the same period; and only a few more (29%) placed an average of two in
such positions. Half reported placing an average of only one in a
T-track position. One in four reported having placed an average of
three or more in non-T-track positions, with the other three-quarters
having placed an average of one or two in positions of this sort.
: These figures do not differ significantly for publics and privates.
The following post-introductory courses are offered either every term or every year in more than half of all departments
responding: Ancient (54%), Early Modern (53%), Ethics (79%), Applied
Ethics (61%), Formal/Symbolic Logic (56%).
Courses offered either every term or every year in less than
half but more than a quarter of all departments:
Social/Political (40%), Phil of Art (30%), Phil of Religion (41%), Phil
of Natural Science (29%), Metaphysics (28%), Theory of Knowledge
Courses offered at least once every two years in more than 40% of all departments: Ancient
Western (84%), Medieval (46%), Early Modern Western (82%), 19th Century
(48%), 20th Century Continental (49%), 20th Century Analytic (48%),
Ethics (90%), Social/Political (66%), Phil of Law (40%), Applied Ethics
(70%), Phil of Art (53%), Phil of Religion (75%), Phil of Natural
Science (55%), Formal/Symbolic Logic (71%), Metaphysics (52%), Theory
of Knowledge (53%), Phil of Mind (43%), Existentialism (49%).
Additional courses offered at least once every two years by
the percentage of responding departments indicated: American/Pragmatism
(27%), Eastern/Asian (33%), Eastern/Indian (21%), Arabic/Islamic (5%),
African (27%), Phil in/and/of Literature (27%), Phil of Social Science
(19%), Phil of Mathematics (8%), Phil of Language (31%), Phil of Human
Nature (19%), Phil and Feminism (35%), Phenomenology (26%), Phil of
Technology (12%), Phil of Environment (23%), Recent
Courses not offered by at least 50% of the departments
responding: American/Pragmatism (51%), Eastern/Asian (54%),
Eastern/Indian (73%), Arabic/Islamic (92%), African (90%), Phil
in/and/of Literature (56%), Phil of Social Science (66%), Phil of
Mathematics (83%), Phil of Language (55%), Phil of Human Nature (74%),
Phil and Feminism (50%), Phenomenology (61%), Phil of Technology (81%),
Phil of Environment (69%), Recent Continental/Post Structuralism
Courses for which student demand is reported to be moderate or high by at least 40% of the departments
responding: Ancient (65%), Early Modern (60%), 19th Century (40%), 20th
Century Continental (40%), Ethics ( 85%), Social/Political (59%), Phil
of Law (44%), Applied Ethics (61%), Phil of Art (48%), Phil of Religion
(63%), Phil of Natural Science (42%), Formal/Symbolic Logic (54%),
Theory of Knowledge (40%), Feminism (42%), Existentialism (50%).
Courses which are offered but for which student demand is
reported to be /ow by at least 30% of departments responding:
Medieval (31%), 20th Century Analytic (32%).
Courses in which enrollment trends are reported to be increasing either gradually or dramatically by at least 20% of
the departments responding: Ethics (31%), Applied Ethics (33%).
The results of this final part of the survey contain relatively few
surprises, and show rather clearly the relative stability of philosophy
offerings and enrollments at most colleges and universities in the U.S.
The details are of some interest, however, and are well worth
examining-as are the responses to other questions in this survey, which
have merely been summarized here. These data, together with a version
of the present report, are being prepared for publication and will be
available from the APA National Office.
for the Committee on the Status and Future of the Profession