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Prepared by the APA Committee on Non-Academic Careers

Third Edition, June 1999 (with a few updates in 2002)

© 1997, 1999, 2002 by the American Philosophical Association


  1. Introduction and Acknowledgements
  2. Illustrations: Some Non-Academic Careers
  3. Suggestions: Some Steps to Finding a Career and a Job and Retaining Professional Identification with Academic Philosophy
  4. Anecdotes/Essay: "Finding Philosophy in Everyday Life," by John Krauser
  5. Essay: "Untitled," by Sanford G. Thatcher
  6. The Responses to the Questionnaire
  7. The List: Some Other Philosophers in Non-Academic Careers
  8. Resources: General Information/Websites/Career Indices (books)
  9. Specific Options/Career Planning/Mechanics of Job Seeking
  10. Networking and Other Support/Employment of Specific Populations/Adult Employment and Coping with Change/Additional Sources of Information on Employment in the Federal Government


Philosophers, like everybody else, have to think hard about what would be a satisfactory job or career, and then have to be prepared to work hard to find employment that meets their own personal goals. Undergraduates choosing a major field of study have to take into consideration the career paths that are open to them. Students who are considering going to graduate school in philosophy need to take into account career options available to holders of advanced degrees in order to be able to make an informed decision. People on the job market often find themselves considering a wide range of options, some of which surface only during the job search. This booklet is designed to help philosophers with the process of finding and evaluating career options.

At first it may appear as if there are only two possibilities. On the one hand, there is the typical academic career: a position in philosophy in an institution of higher education. And on the other hand, there is everything else. But this is much too simplistic to be any help. The "everything else" option, as this booklet illustrates, has much more variety, and many more options, than appear on the surface. And it may turn out to be more appealing than at first.

Philosophers making career decisions may be tempted to think that their training in philosophy fits them only for an academic career, and that they have no particular skills or qualifications that can be put to use in some other line of work. This is not just too simplistic to be useful, it is not true.

What is true is that there are few signposted career paths for philosophers other than the ones leading to some sort of academic job. The academic job market is wider than it used to be. It includes positions in recently developed fields such as bioethics. It includes some jobs for appropriately qualified philosophers in schools of business and medicine, and in hospitals. There are positions for philosophers as teachers of philosophy in primary and secondary schools. But other than these, visible career options for philosophers that involve something that is recognizable as doing philosophy are few.

And the academic job market, while wider than it used to be, cannot be relied upon to be deep enough to provide satisfactory careers for all those seeking them. According to the National Research Council data for 1993, reporting on responses from 7,900 holders of the Ph.D. in philosophy:

  • 81.5% were employed full time;
  • 7.5% were retired;
  • 8.0% were employed part time; and
  • 3.0% were unemployed.

Of those with full time employment:

  • 77.1% worked in an educational institution, including 1.4% in an elementary or secondary school;
  • 8.2% worked for a private company;
  • 5.6% were self-employed;
  • 5.6% worked for a non-profit organization; and
  • 3.3% worked for government.

It is safe to assume that some of the 77.1% working in an educational institution had short-term jobs, and were soon back on the job market.

The APA records the number of candidates and the number of jobs advertised through the APA. The ratio has ranged from a low of 1.4 candidates per job advertised in 1983-84 to 2.6 in 1995-96. The ratio has been 2 or greater in every academic year since 1991-92.

More recent data will be published in the APA Proceedings and Addresses when they become available. Much other information about academic career opportunities is also published in the Proceedings and Addresses, and posted on or linked with the APA website, at

The harsh fact of the matter is that somebody who aspires to an academic career as a philosopher may be forced to consider other alternatives, or may come to prefer other alternatives. This booklet provides information, and moral support, for philosophers considering their career options. Someone who has succeeded at philosophy has not just training, but talents and skills, and particularly talents and skills that are not universally present in well-educated, intelligent people. Just to mention some of the most obvious ones, philosophers are especially good at formulating questions, distinguishing closely related positions, making good arguments, and exposing bad ones. Philosophers are good at explaining complex matters, and (not without exception, it must be said) good at writing clear and accurate prose. The list goes on and on.

If this booklet has a single message, it is this: these are absolutely fundamental abilities, applicable to pretty much any kind of work at all. A person who has the philosopher's skills and talents, as well as whatever other training and abilities are required, is to a very great extent that much better fitted to succeed in a career outside of the academy.

It is important not to undervalue these philosopher's abilities, and not to overlook them in considering career options. Part of thinking about choosing a career consists in self-examination, making an inventory of training, skills, and talents, and then casting about to find ways in which these can be applied in identifying a career and landing a job. Some of the works referred to in Section IV go in to this process in detail.

Having strong qualifications for a job or a career is one thing: marketing these qualifications is quite another. Potential employers do not in general think of philosophers as particularly well qualified for careers in, say, consulting: it is up to us to convince these employers that we are particularly well suited to the work because we are philosophers. Several of the stories in Section III document successful campaigns to market a philosopher's abilities as job qualifications.

It is also important to realize that the official map of careers for philosophers contains great expanses of blank space. There are those signposted academic career paths, and not much else. The challenge comes in unearthing career opportunities and in applying those philosophers' skills. Many, many philosophers have found (or created for themselves) careers away, in some instances far away, from the academy. And the number of such people who have maintained contact with the profession, and with the APA, is large. Information from, and about, these people shows some of the many ways in which philosophers' skills have been turned to use in non-academic careers. Surely there are many others of whose career paths we are ignorant, whose stories would add to the range of careers followed by philosophers.

And there are signs of new pathways into non-academic employment. At present (March 1999) unemployment in many parts of the workplace (not, unfortunately, including ours) is low, in skilled jobs as well as unskilled. There is evidence that some employers are looking beyond their usual sources for skilled, or just intelligent and trainable, workers. Princeton University has begun a program of bringing Ph.D.s in the humanities into contact with potential employers far outside of higher education, and we might expect other universities to consider such programs as well.

In many cases, non-academic careers require further study or qualification, perhaps several years of study leading to a degree in another discipline or profession. For example, there are many philosophers with careers in law, and more than a few in medicine. But there are many instances of philosophers who found (or created) careers for themselves without any further formal training.

Section I gives some examples of careers to which philosophers have successfully adapted. Section II offers some general suggestions on finding a career outside of the academy. Section III contains responses to a questionnaire circulated by the committee on non-academic careers from philosophers with jobs other than in academic philosophy, two longer essays commissioned especially for this booklet, and a list, in some instances with very little detail, of other philosophers in non-academic careers.

Many of the items in this section contain stories of how a philosopher's skills were marketed as qualifications for jobs, and of how these skills serve their owners well in their careers. Section IV is a list of print, video, and Internet resources that might be useful to a philosopher considering career options.


This booklet is the successor to Careers for Philosophers, which was published in the Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 58 number 2, in November 1984, and also in booklet form. It draws some of its content, and much of its inspiration, from that earlier booklet. The principal authors of the 1984 booklet were Robert Audi and Donald Scherer, assisted by other members of the Committee on Career Opportunities at the time.

This booklet is principally the work of Stephanie Lewis and Michael Pritchard, respectively the present and immediate past chairs of the committee on non-academic careers. Anthony Hartle circulated the questionnaire. Julie Gowan revised the bibliography in Section IV. And finally, many people helped to identify and find philosophers in non-academic careers, and provided helpful comments and suggestions. [NOTE: In April of 2002, this booklet was edited for web site publication, and the Internet sites were double-checked, by Katherine A. Dettwyler, Ph.D. (Anthropology), Assistant to the Executive Director.

Return to the table of contents

Illustrations: some non-academic careers

Philosophers are now employed in a great variety of non-academic fields, as well as in academic positions outside teaching. The following list is representative, though far from exhaustive:

  1. Business: advertising executive; assistant manager of a hotel; assistant to the president of a national firm; brewer; development manager; manager of a winery; manpower services coordinator.
  2. Computers and Technology: computer systems analyst; consultant; owner of a computer firm; programmer; technical writer.
  3. Consulting: in business, education, and publishing.
  4. Education (non-teaching fields): admissions officer; alumni relations officer; archivist; college president; dean; educational testing administrator; humanities bibliographer; librarian; residence hall director; provost; vice-chancellor for academic affairs.
  5. Engineering.
  6. Finance: bank officer (various departments); commodities broker; financial advisor; investment broker; tax accountant.
  7. Government (federal): armed forces officer; CIA staff member; congressional staff member; diplomat; immigration service staff member; intelligence officer; intern in the Department of Defense; policy analyst; policy and planning consultant; United Nations official; U.S. Postal Service staff member.
  8. Government (state and local): director, human services agency; county commissioner; county supervisor.
  9. Insurance.
  10. Law: attorney; bond lawyer; coordinator of a criminal justice program; director of communications at a state bar association; legal researcher; police officer; legal aid society employee; paralegal assistant; security officer.
  11. Marketing.
  12. Media: free-lance writer; executive editor of a magazine; TV producer.
  13. Medicine: director of a provincial medical association; hospital administrator; nurse; nursing administrator; physician; veterinary oncologist.
  14. Publishing: director of a university press; editor; employees of university and commercial presses.
  15. Real Estate.
  16. Religious Ministry
  17. Research: business, educational, governmental, and scientific.
  18. Sales: many branches.
  19. Technical Writing.

None of these will be discussed at length; what follows is simply a description of some representative non-academic careers recently pursued by philosophers. It is appropriate here, however, to provide some general information about a few of these positions as prospects for philosophers or advanced students of philosophy. This is also an appropriate place to say that for philosophers and students of philosophy who are considering academic and non-academic career options, the kinds of jobs described here and in Section III should be compared with part-time and temporary teaching positions, as well as with tenure-track and tenured ones. The former are a quite common beginning point for those who take academic jobs, and many who eventually receive tenured positions will first have to hold one or more temporary or part-time positions with fewer rewards, heavier teaching loads, fewer benefits, and no job security.


This is rather a catch-all in this discussion. It includes careers in management, sales, consulting, public relations, fundraising, accounting, systems analysis, advertising, and many others as well. Only a few of these can be addressed here. Students of philosophy and philosophers seeking non-academic positions might profitably consult their college placement services for up-to-date reference books that may list companies interested in considering them, as well as for individual career leads.

Broadly speaking, the businesses most likely to be hiring are those new to an area, those with a new product, and those in growing sectors of the economy. In metropolitan areas both chambers of commerce and public libraries should have (or know of) publications that list business openings in the area. Talking with staff of chambers of commerce or local service organizations may give one some of the background knowledge needed for discussing prospective jobs with firms in which one is interested.

One possible career move is to an entry-level position in sales. Sales positions are quite diverse, however, and some require special knowledge or an ability to marshal technical or other details with brevity and force.

A good philosophical education can be an asset in sales. The clear, convincing presentation of ideas in lectures, for instance, is akin to a salesperson's presentations to customers. Moreover, philosophers are trained to present views plausibly and forcefully irrespective of whether these views are their own; this ability can be very useful in selling products and services, for it is quite common for salespersons to have to sell things about which they are not personally enthusiastic, or products whose deficiencies must be admitted and shown to be outweighed by their merits.

It should be noted that large and even medium sized businesses tend to be hierarchically organized. This is one reason why philosophers and students of philosophy may be able to enter them only at lower levels unless they either have specialized training or can persuade employers that their philosophical education prepares them for entry at a relatively high level. On the other hand, there is often a great deal of mobility in such businesses. In finding jobs in businesses, contacts tend to be very important. Relatives and friends should not be underestimated as sources of information about, or introductions to, appropriate firms. Moreover, philosophy departments that maintain contacts with non-academically employed former students can often help greatly. Activity in community groups and in service organizations may also help one in finding a suitable position.

Success in finding jobs in businesses, and in advancing after one has been hired, is not only a matter of one's knowledge and contacts. It is also significantly tied to talents and personality traits that no education can easily produce: leadership, a way with people, fairness, intuitive judgment, and various other qualities. But philosophy can support and even enhance these traits. There are, moreover, many capacities very important in business -- such as the ability to communicate, to find and organize information, and to solve problems -- which a good philosophical education develops. This is not to underemphasize the increasing technical knowledge that some entry-level positions require; but philosophers can often learn these things quickly, and in some cases barriers to entry may be due more to lack of experience or to difficulty in one's qualifications than to inability to do the job in question well. In any event, a number of philosophers have been both successful and happy in business careers, and there is good reason to think that success in business is very substantially a result of capacities that philosophical training helps one to develop.

Computers and Technology

This area is so large, and evolving so fast, that it is not useful to try to make very specific suggestions. Many philosophers have entered this general field. Some have taken teaching jobs, but most hold non-academic positions. Philosophers seeking jobs in the computer field have often taken master’s degrees in computer science, or gotten low-level jobs in which they learned skills that allowed them to move into more skilled positions. Many people working in this general area have found that their training in logic and philosophical analysis was of direct value, and they describe their work as providing some of the same sorts of challenges and satisfactions that attracted them to philosophy. It should be added that while training in symbolic logic is a good background for computer work, it does not in general carry over directly into skills in operating or programming computers. What we are emphasizing is the capacity to learn computer work relatively quickly given training in symbolic logic, not the extent to which people trained in logic are already prepared for that work.

Some philosophy graduate students are now combining their philosophical work with selected courses in computer science, with the idea that when they seek employment they will have broader education and a wider range of jobs available to them. One may of course construct a similar program between philosophy and other areas, such as traditional business fields; and the same kind of diversification can be pursued by undergraduate philosophy students.


We mention some careers outside of philosophy departments. While these are not strictly non-academic careers, they do suggest ways in which a philosopher might migrate to something that is really outside the scope of academic philosophy. A number of philosophers are now teaching in fields other than philosophy. Some have moved departments, or even areas, without further formal study, while others have gone back to school and gotten whole new Ph.D.s. Some are teaching in business schools, for instance; some are in computer science departments; and some are in medical schools. There are also philosophers teaching in high schools, particularly private ones; and the APA's committee on pre-college philosophy is trying to increase the range of opportunities for teaching philosophy from the elementary through the high school levels. It is difficult to predict how much expansion there will be in pre-college teaching opportunities in philosophy. But there is, in at least some quarters, a conviction that the American school system should increase the proportion of its highly qualified teachers in the humanities; and it is possible that philosophers and students of philosophy, particularly if they can teach some other subject, will find it less and less difficult to obtain pre-college teaching positions.

Many philosophers hold administrative positions in colleges and universities, and quite a few are librarians in such institutions. High-level administrative positions are usually obtained only by people who hold some professorial rank first, but philosophers might explore more fully than they have the possibility of getting professional administrative jobs not requiring professorial rank, e.g., in personnel, financial aid, or public relations offices. Philosophical training is highly relevant to much administrative work, and many successful philosopher-administrators have spoken of the great value of their philosophical capacities in their administrative jobs.

Philosophers and students of philosophy interested in administration may find it helpful to consult administrators at their own or nearby institutions about possible options. In some cases, students may be in a good position to take on an administrative assignment or secure an administrative internship (whether at their own school or nearby) whose successful completion provides evidence of administrative ability. This can establish an initial record on which to build, whether inside or outside the academic world.


Until fairly recently, few philosophers knew of either the range of government jobs for which philosophers are eligible or the number of such jobs that philosophers have found congenial. There are now philosophers on congressional staffs, in federal agencies and bureaus, in state and local governments, and in the employ of the United Nations. Some of them have expressed both a sense that their work is challenging and a great appreciation for their philosophical training as preparation for what they are doing. Consider how a senior congressman expressed his view of the capacities of the philosophers on his staff:

It seems to me that philosophers have acquired skills that are very valuable to a member of Congress. The ability to analyze a problem carefully and consider it from many points of view is one. Another is the ability to communicate ideas clearly in a logically compelling form. A third is the ability to handle the many different kinds of problems that occupy the congressional agenda at any time. (Lee H. Hamilton, 9th District, Indiana, letter of March 25, 1982.)

The diversity of federal jobs that become available regularly is immense. Only a few years ago it may have seemed to most philosophers that unless one is interested in politics or perhaps public policy, a government job is unlikely to be a good choice. It now appears that philosophers whose primary interests lie elsewhere might profitably explore job possibilities in the public sector. For instance, the federal government, the United Nations, and to a lesser extent the states, attract both lobbyists and specialists in disseminating information. Washington, New York, and the state capitals may thus offer philosophers jobs of these sorts. Religious, civic, and private interest groups also offer such positions. Some are part-time or temporary; but there are permanent jobs of these sorts, and some of the temporary or part-time ones may be a good basis for finding a permanent one, whether in this domain or elsewhere. Philosophers may even be able to find a job of this kind serving causes they cherish; and while many of the positions just described are non-governmental, they often require extensive contact with the government and sometimes lead to one's securing a government job. (Specific information about federal jobs is available from sources listed in Section IV.)

Law. Many philosophers and students of philosophy go to law school, and there are now many successful philosopher-lawyers. On the basis of information from law school faculty, from philosophers who have kept track of their students who have gone into the law, and from independent studies, it is clear that philosophical training tends to be of great value both in law school and in legal practice. Further, philosophers tend to do very well on the LSAT examination. A philosopher at a distinguished university noted that even their average graduate students in philosophy who transferred to law school usually did outstanding work as law students.

The law is not only a career that interests many philosophers and philosophy students; it is also a field for which philosophical training is generally excellent preparation. Furthermore, while the standard path into a legal career is through law school, philosophers have entered the profession of law, for instance in legal research, without having obtained a law degree. Philosophers are also employed in prison administration, as police officers, and in paralegal work as rights’ advocates for abused children, battered wives, and the mentally retarded. Given the large number of recent law school graduates, it may be especially appropriate for philosophers interested in legal work in general to consider some of these other areas of the legal domain. At the same time, it should be understood that the better and more rewarding career paths in law, including practicing law, require a law degree and passing a bar exam.


Philosophers are now doing a wide range of jobs related to medicine. Some are M.D.s, but many more, particularly those in bioethics, are not. Philosophers are now employed in hospital administration, in organizing hospice movements, and in support roles in neonatal nurseries and intensive care units, where they both help to formulate policy and to counsel patients and families.

There are also quite a few philosophers holding academic jobs in medical centers. Most of them do not have M.D. degrees. It is difficult to predict how many such jobs will be available in the future but it is likely that some medical training or a degree in medicine or nursing will turn out to be a requirement. Moreover, it may be possible for philosophers to find (or even create) jobs in large hospitals (or groups of hospitals) not affiliated with medical schools.


Publishing is not only a field with positions for which some philosophers and students of philosophy are well prepared, but also an area which is often intellectually interesting to philosophers. Quite a few philosophers hold editorial positions with university or commercial presses, and others have sales or managerial jobs with commercial publishers. In editorial decision-making, acquisitions, and other phases of publishing, good philosophical training has proved to be excellent preparation.

Copyediting deserves separate comment because it is one of the few positions in publishing that may be open to people who have sufficient skill but lack previous experience in the field. There has for some time been a preference, among employers in publishing, for literary or journalistic background as preparation for copyediting. Doubtless people trained in literature may be more likely than philosophers to have a keen consciousness of, say, the split infinitive; and certainly good copy editing requires attention to such things as commas, possessives, tenses, and parallelism of style. But such matters are clearly far less important than editorial capacities for which philosophical training is excellent, and perhaps generally better than any: philosophers are particularly able to clarify content without changing meanings; to distinguish what is central from what is not, and to help authors subordinate the latter to the former; and to help less-than-perfectly-articulate writers say what they mean.

Copyediting tends to be free-lance, part-time work, and so might be suited to someone looking for a source of income without making a major career commitment. On the other hand, the work is not in general a first step on a career path to a full-time professional career in publishing. And one of the stresses of the job comes from writers who may need help from copyeditors, but who resent somebody else changing even one semicolon in a manuscript.

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Suggestions: Some steps to finding a career and a job, and retaining professional identification with academic philosophy

Some steps to finding a career and a job

This section gives some general suggestions for philosophers who might be considering a non-academic career, or trying to find such a career, or just a job. We leave more specific counseling to those qualified to give it: professional career counselors, placement (and outplacement) advisors, and recruiters.

One activity is vital: talking to people. Some of the conversations will not be beneficial, but some will be, and it is not possible to tell in advance which people will turn out to be the helpful ones or which bit of advice is germane. Talk to your friends. Talk to your friends' friends. Contact people who have made the transition from academic philosophy to a non-academic career. (But be careful not to impose. Such people are often willing to give advice, but not necessarily at the very moment that a call comes in.) In short: network, network, network.

The most general point to be made here is that philosophers, by virtue of being philosophers, have skills, talents, and qualifications applicable to many non-academic fields. In a number of fields where they lack a knowledge of the day-to-day work, they have at least a majority of the capacities that determine success in that work over the long run. These points are not generally stressed in either graduate or undergraduate education in philosophy; and while philosophy departments are becoming more aware of the sorts of things we have been emphasizing and of the rapid transferability of philosophical training to non-academic pursuits, few placement officers have much knowledge of the range of non-academic opportunities for philosophers.

At the same time, it is important to remember that making the move from academic philosophy, or graduate school, to a non-academic career, requires first a voyage of discovery, to explore regions where there are no marked career paths. And second, it is important to remember that getting a job outside of the academy, especially for somebody who has no other sort of training or credentials to offer, requires a marketing campaign, to convince potential employers that a philosopher brings valuable skills to another kind of work.

Researching Fields

An assessment of one's general interests and educational background will indicate some fields for exploration, but philosophers and students of philosophy seeking non-academic jobs may benefit greatly from considering more career options than those that appeal to them on the basis of their initial interests. As the career sketches in Section III suggest, the range of positions philosophers have found congenial is surprisingly wide. There are, moreover, jobs which, though not initially attractive to most philosophers, can in time be tailored to the interests of their occupants. In this connection, the following points may be useful.

First, without research into the nature of non-academic jobs, philosophers are likely to overlook potentially attractive options. Second, without some knowledge of the demands of a non-academic job, philosophers are unlikely to be able to get the job even if they are qualified. This is because, by and large, non-academic employers will not have a clear idea of what a philosopher can contribute and may even begin with the assumption that philosophical training is quite unlikely to be relevant.

There is much literature on many kinds of jobs, but often one can find an informed person in the field willing to talk about careers in that area. One may also seek out appropriate people through one's own contacts, one's placement office, or an organization to which one belongs. In exploring career options, philosophers may do well to get information about positions above what appears to be the usual entry level for college graduates who have little or no experience or special training in the field. One may, in some such cases, start higher up than is usual by convincing the employer that one's overall training is sufficient for the job, or at least has prepared one to do it well given a brief orientation or training period.

Informational Interviewing

To do this, one contacts (usually by telephone) the person in an organization who is responsible for the project or area one is exploring, explains briefly what one wants to know (indicating, if possible, what sort of thing one has already learned), and requests an appointment to discuss the matter. In the interview one can often learn about possible jobs, convey relevant information about oneself, present oneself as a qualified potential worker, and develop a contact useful in seeking a position. An informational interview need not be done in search of a position, and in any case one should abide by one's initial intention to seek information. If the interviewer wishes to pursue possible employment, that is another matter. Otherwise, efforts to secure a job in the organization in question should be made later.

Presenting Oneself

Two aspects of this deserve particular comment: getting an interview with a non-academic employer, and conducting oneself in such an interview. Placement advisors, previous employers, friends, and contacts are useful resources in both processes. But it may help to add just these few points. The first is generally familiar, yet bears repetition: a vita is not a resume and is not normally appropriate for non-academic applications. (Some suggestions about writing resumes appear below.) Second, while in many cases telephone calls are better initial approaches than letters (even if only letters are requested), this is not always so. When one must apply in writing, cover letters (if appropriate) are particularly important. Such letters should be as short as possible. If it is not obvious that one has the announced qualifications for the position, such a letter can state, in factual rather than self-congratulatory language, the ways in which one sees oneself as qualifying.

Our third point concerns conduct in interviews. Philosophers and students of philosophy often must on the one hand know as much as they can about how their philosophical capacities bear on the job and express this well, and yet on the other hand resist being defensive or loquacious about their education. Asking the right questions and speaking from the employer's perspective can help greatly. It is very desirable to identify, beforehand, the work in the organization that matches one's abilities. One can then specifically discuss how, if hired, one can contribute. In doing so, it may be possible to persuade the employer that one's philosophical training, combined with teaching and other experience, is sufficient to warrant starting at a high level of responsibility or with greater autonomy than usual. Quite apart from the specific content of the interview, however, it is likely to be important to go beyond offering solid, pertinent information about one's capacities in relation to the work of the organization in question. Job interviewers will usually be seriously considering one's ability to get along with others and to put people at ease, and there is no substitute for good will and a cooperative disposition.

Follow-up of interviews is important. While there are times when it is clear after an interview that there is no point in pursuing the position further, there is also times when appropriate follow-up can lead to an offer that would not otherwise be extended. Where there is a promising but uncertain prospect, one may find it desirable, after an interview, to try (without being intrusive) to get more information about the organization from one or more persons employed there. This can be highly useful if one needs to seek further consideration, such as a second interview. On the other hand, if one does not receive an offer, it may be useful, in connection with future applications; to make a tactful inquiry regarding one' s perceived strengths and weaknesses.


Resumes can be prepared in many ways, and for different purposes, and a person may be well advised to have differently designed resumes. Alternative resumes are particularly recommended to people applying for jobs with very different sorts of requirements. A resume may emphasize the job experience one has had (normally listing employers in reverse chronological order); the positions one has held or major jobs one has done (making chronology, and perhaps even employers, secondary); the skills one has to offer; or some combination of these. Brevity, readability, and an active, positive tone are important.

Resumes are used most often by prospective employers for their personnel staff to decide whom to interview, frequently from a long list of applicants. In a large organization, it is not uncommon for the person responsible for screening to know the job requirements only in outline. This should be kept in mind when writing resumes, which are often a basis for speedy elimination of most applicants. Employment counselors often recommend avoiding sending resumes or, if they must be sent, making them short, job-specific, and skill-oriented. They usually recommend making personal contacts instead, preferably with people who have the final hiring authority rather than their personnel officers. They often stress that, as in writing a resume, one be brief and concentrate on conveying skills appropriate to the work of the prospective employer.

Pursuing Specialized Training

As noted above, among the non-academic jobs which philosophers have found rewarding are a number that cannot be obtained without some specialized training. It is clearly important to determine, in advance of application if possible, whether a position absolutely requires special training as a condition of employment (or success). It should be emphasized, however, that recent years have plainly shown that many kinds of specialized training present no obstacle to philosophers or students of philosophy, provided they have the time and money for further coursework, a whole new degree program, or a suitable training program. Among the courses of special training which philosophers and philosophy students (including undergraduate majors) have recently pursued in addition to law school and computer science programs, are programs in business administration, medicine, theology, teacher certification, and internships of various kinds.

Training on the Job

Having spoken of jobs requiring specialized training, we want to emphasize that an immense amount of such training (and much general training) is done by employers on the job. Many employers train employees at considerable expense even when they have hired them expecting good preparation for the relevant jobs. This is an important fact for philosophers interested in non-academic employment. Philosophers and students of philosophy tend to be eminently capable of learning fast. In some instances, particularly where they are fairly close to meeting the technical qualifications for a position that interests them, the main obstacle to their obtaining one may be the lack of a good way to communicate the extent of their preparation. Some non-academic employers can be convinced that it is preferable to hire a better person and do on-the-job training than to employ a certified professional who has fewer of the basic abilities that produce high-quality work over the years.

Retaining professional identification with philosophy

Philosophers whose careers are not academic can maintain philosophical identifications and in some cases may profit much from so doing. There is certainly no need for philosophers or students of philosophy to regard taking a (permanent) non-academic position as "leaving philosophy." It is not vocational training at all, despite the large number of careers for which the capacities it develops are excellent preparation. To call attention to some of the ways in which non-academically employed philosophers can continue their philosophical inquiries and remain actively in touch with philosophical colleagues, a few of the existing opportunities and models are described below.

Possible Affiliations with Philosophy Departments

Philosophy departments differ greatly in their resources, the scope of their programs, and their ability to expand their activities in the suggested ways; but many are interacting with non-academically employed philosophers near them, and we believe that many more would be quite receptive to colleagues who wish to join them in some of the department's activities. This interaction has tended to be beneficial and enjoyable to all those involved. Moreover, non-academically employed philosophers may, and in a number of cases have, become valuable resources for academics – e.g., in teaching and research in applied ethics or in computer theory. And academics may, and sometimes have, become resources for non-academic colleagues – e.g., in relation to policy issues or questions about the structure and content of important documents. Furthermore, given certain trends in professional and business education, there may be an increasing role in teaching, or at least in giving special lectures, for successful business and professional people with advanced academic training.


Non-academically employed philosophers are most welcome to belong to the APA and (even without membership) to attend APA divisional conventions. Members may submit papers to program committees, and any philosopher may volunteer to comment or chair a session by sending the program committee chair a vita and an expression of interest in one or more areas. Second, organizers of group meetings may in some cases also consider volunteers. The APA is quite willing to schedule sessions for appropriate groups of non-academically employed philosophers who would like to meet at a divisional convention. Since APA program committees use anonymous review, one may volunteer to comment or to chair a session even if one has submitted a paper. A program committee may give some preference, in selecting from among volunteers, to those who have submitted highly rated papers that were not accepted. Simultaneously submitting a paper and volunteering to be on the APA program may thus increase one's chance of appearing on it. People interested in being on an APA program should consult the APA Proceedings and Addresses (sent to all APA members), or consult the APA's website, at, for APA program deadlines and an indication of the scope and addresses of philosophy groups that meet in conjunction with the APA divisions.


Many philosophy journals use anonymous review. None requires academic affiliation as a condition of acceptance, and a significant number of authors of articles in philosophy journals do not list an academic affiliation. Some non-academically employed philosophers have also published in journals or magazines in the area of their employment, and some of their writings have become highly respected in the relevant fields. This sort of publication can lead to invitations to do consulting. Some of this work is also potentially useful in producing writings of interest to philosophical publications.

The APA's Journal of Value Inquiry Prize

To encourage philosophical writing by non-academically employed philosophers, the APA is offering a prize for the best essay submitted by a member of the APA who is not in long-term academic employment. To learn more about this prize, visit the Journal of Value Inquiry prize page.

Grant opportunities

There are many agencies, public and private, whose programs or grants might interest non-academically employed philosophers, and guidelines can usually be readily obtained at libraries or by asking the agency in question for information. Many grant and fellowship opportunities of interest to philosophers are described in the APA Proceedings and Addresses each year and listed on the APA website.

Groups of Independent Scholars

Many single and multi-disciplinary research organizations have developed near campuses and urban areas. They range from small local interdisciplinary groups, such as the Institute for Independent Studies in New Haven and the Princeton Research Forum (website, to the Institute for Research in History (IRH) in New York City, which has over 300 associates from history and related fields. These groups are formed to advance research and discussion among independent scholars. The IRH, which is the model for many such organizations, is built around small interest groups that meet regularly to discuss readings; membership requires active participation in at least one such group. The quite specific focus of these organizations makes them attractive to academic scholars and their non-academic counterparts. The National Council of Independent Scholars (NCIS) is an umbrella group for such organizations and a source of scholarly contact for independent scholars in all fields. NCIS runs conferences, publishes a journal, and maintains a website,, with lots of useful links. Contact NCIS at P. 0. Box 5743, Berkeley, CA 94705, or visit the website.

The Internet

There are many websites devoted to philosophers, and philosophy, and many chat groups. There is also a mind-boggling array of what is called "philosophy." The situation changes too fast to give any real information, though there are some sites listed in Section IV. A good place to start is with the APA website,, and follow the links from there.

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Anecdotes and essay "Finding philosophy in everyday life,” by John Krauser

Many, many people have devoted years to studying and doing philosophy, who now have jobs and career paths that do not include full-time tenured (or prima facie tenurable) jobs in philosophy departments in institutions of higher education. Even leaving aside people who enjoyed philosophy but did not carry on with it beyond undergraduate study, we know of many people who, after substantial investments of time and energy in postgraduate study and teaching, went on to do something different. There are dozens of people who have enough of an interest in, and affection for, philosophy to maintain contact with the APA while pursuing other than academic careers in philosophy. No doubt there are many more such people who are not visible to the APA.

Perhaps stretching a point, we call all such people "philosophers" and most careers other than academic philosophy "non-academic." Some of the people who appear in this section hold academic appointments in related fields, e.g.,. law, bioethics, or business ethics, and should perhaps be counted as specialized academic philosophers rather than people who have taken some other career path. Some have academic jobs far from philosophy: e.g., marine science or veterinary oncology. Some have quasi-academic jobs, e.g., people working in bioethics in research institutions or teaching hospitals. And some have gone into academic administration or library work. There are several people whose work concerns creating examinations: for the Educational Testing Service, the Law School Advisory Council, and other similar organizations. There is nothing that could be called a "career path" that leads to such work, but there is at least a discernible track. Others really do have non-academic careers, some requiring additional study or credentials, e.g., law, medicine, public finance. And finally, others have varied careers that, on the face of it, have nothing whatsoever to do with academic philosophy, or teaching, or research: e.g., supplier of brewing supplies, strategic consultant, and cop.

The stories and sketches that follow are endlessly variable. Some people were undergraduate philosophy majors who developed a lasting affection for philosophy, but who went on to do something else. Some spent some time in graduate school in philosophy, others completed the Ph.D., and others still followed an academic career path for a while but then switched, perhaps after further study, to some other career. Some of these people are doing something that is recognizable as philosophy in their jobs; others are not. Some have a kind of job in which the application of philosophical skills and training is readily apparent; others have found new ways to put their philosopher's attributes to work.

We list these people, and relate the stories, to illustrate the range of careers that philosophers might pursue. Our view is that once you're a philosopher you can't stop being one. You may not put in the time and effort you once did on, say, the ontological argument or multi-valued logics, but you still do whatever it is you do in the manner of a philosopher. The lists are not meant as lists of potential contacts so much as an illustration of the variety of careers that philosophers have taken up.

This section contains three sorts of information. First, there are two essays by philosophers following non-academic careers. Second, there are briefer summaries of responses to a questionnaire from philosophers in non-academic careers. And third, there is a list of people who count as philosophers who have other sorts of jobs.

The lists have three uses. First, they provide possible sources of information for philosophers contemplating non-academic careers, though we have to caution the reader that lists like these go out of date fast. Second, the lists give some idea of the diversity of career paths that philosophers have followed, and in some instances created. And third, documenting philosophers in other than academic philosophy jobs might serve others as a source of moral support.

Finding Philosophy in Everyday Life

John Krauser
Associate Director
Ontario Medical Association

In this article, reprinted from the University of Southern Mississippi Alumni News, John Krauser explains how his philosophy education has helped both him and his co-workers in his medical profession.

Training in philosophy prepares people for real work in non-academic settings. The work philosophy prepares you for is hidden, but can be found in reflective organizations characterized in part by their having reflective people in power at the senior staff and/or elected officer level. Socrates is a role model for the practical application of philosophical skills in non-academic settings.

If I Take Philosophy, Where Can I Get a Job?

After three years and an Honors B.Sc. in Chemistry and Philosophy at the University of Southern Mississippi, I spent three years in postgraduate work in ethics and philosophy at McGill. In 1973, I joined the Ontario Medical Association, which is the voluntary professional body for all 22,000 physicians in the Province of Ontario. I wasn't hired to do philosophy but there is not a question in my mind that I have been involved in philosophical work and have been a gainfully employed philosopher in a non-academic setting.

My work over the last 20 years has been in a department that actively recruited physicians committed to patient care and core professional values. This orientation is the key when patients and colleagues ask us for help in seeking improvement in health services. Consequently, I have been working philosophically on clinical policies and problems arising between patients and physicians, between families and physicians, between physicians and other health and social service professionals, and between physicians and various types of bureaucracies, in health law and medical ethics. This 20 years of experience is my database to support the view that training in philosophy has tangible, practical value to employers in the community.

Non-Reflective Organizations

In order to describe organizations where philosophical work gets done, let's start with the characteristics of organizations that are hostile ground for philosophical work. These are non-reflective organizations that:

  1. Reduce issues to questions of power and the politics of power or recognize only predominantly technical problems in their field of interest and expertise.
  2. See the world exclusively through their own corporate culture without interest or insight into the worldview of others.
  3. Prize organizational loyalty more highly than the art of active and effective self-criticism.
  4. Don't balance organizational enhancement or material self-interest, with any "other-serving" values, whether the "other" is patients, community, an ideal, or a profession.
  5. Show a major investment in denial of organizational/professional blemishes.
  6. Consider relating to the community, the public, patients and their advocates, etc., as only a matter of public relations left to crisis management.
  7. Don't recognize the skills required to articulate, role model, and use core professional or organizational values to providing long-term leadership
  8. Can satisfy immediate priorities only vis-a-vis membership, revenue, lobbying, political survival of elected Board, and/or CEO and have little time for planning or corporate value analysis.

Reflective Organizations and Reflective People

People with skills and training in philosophy will want to find reflective organizations to work for. First, you will want to ensure compatibility between the corporate mission, philosophy, culture, and core values that you recognize will give your work personal meaning. Second, it is in a reflective organization where your training can contribute to the corporate or professional bottom line. There are several defining characteristics of a reflective organization:

  1. It has, believes in, and seeks to serve, some core values in addition to the material self-interest of the organization.
  2. It has a senior staff and a Board of Directors who take pride in these core values and skillfully articulate them at all levels.
  3. Their core values really do influence to some degree the day-to-day management and long-term plans of the organization.
  4. It has reflective people with power in the organization whose job description includes guardianship and regular display of the core values of the corporation. Reflective people defend these core values against corporate exploitation, being sacrificed to self-interest, or being lost in our scientific North American culture.
  5. Reflective people are those who take pride in achieving excellence in using the core values to define the organization or profession and being held accountable in public for this work.
  6. Reflective people help keep these core values alive and vibrant by successfully demonstrating their capacity to guide the professional organization to meet new and unfamiliar social challenges.
  7. Reflective people understand the significance of a core value that has survived the test of time, helped develop professional community, and defined the relationship between medicine and society.
  8. The organization demonstrates skill, confidence and integrity in anticipating and dealing with conflicts between material self-interest and its core values. This skill shows up in the organization's track record of win-win solutions to these conflicts.
  9. The organization is mature enough to not hide, back away, or refuse to acknowledge circumstances that will test its commitment to core values other than material self-interest.
  10. Reflective people have a feel for the history of the organizational core values and the struggles that have gone on over time to keep them alive. Their perspective includes having a feeling for the history of ideals.
  11. The core values statement is usually a very general principle and unless reflective people contribute to its interpretation and application to new circumstances, it is unlikely that all relevant considerations will be identified and weighed.
  12. Reflective people recognize that the organization's core value isn't its exclusive preserve to interpret. As a public statement, it is subject to the interpretation and debates it generates in many other perspectives making up our society.
  13. Reflective people open the organization to self-criticism, learning, and growth.

It is important to realize that there really are reflective organizations with these characteristics, but once reflective, not always so and vice versa. However, increased scrutiny and accountability of health organizations by the public, patients, and corporate or professional colleagues will continue to require organizations to demonstrate they have the skill to analyze and recognize their core values and to intelligently, with sensitivity, discuss them in the context of competing community values.

Once you have a reflective organization with some reflective people in power, it is possible to demonstrate the contribution of those with training in philosophy. In brief, I help reflective physicians sustain a reflective organization and a reflective medical profession. The key point is that I, as an intellectual midwife, help them accomplish this, but in the end, this is work physicians must choose to deliver for themselves and their profession.

How Does Philosophical Training Contribute to the Corporate Bottom Line?

In my experience, much philosophical work gets done in a reflective organization when the organization is prepared to recognize that social change is challenging its core values. With increased pressure on the profession's service commitment and with vastly increased exposure in public forums and in the enormous communication potential of the media, the medical profession must demonstrate a very sophisticated ability to critically engage social change in light of its core service values and be able to provide its share of moral and intellectual leadership in society. Let me offer four recent examples of this work in Ontario.

Challenging Conventional Wisdom

Ontario may accept that patients who want active medical assistance in dying can make this request of the medical profession in Ontario. It is doing philosophy to analyze whether the core values of the profession to relieve psychological suffering includes acceding to this request. We have gone through a very Socratic exercise where the physicians have said "no" from the beginning, but after a series of challenging questions, can now provide a detailed ethical analysis to support this position. In going that extra mile, they demonstrated real understanding of their own traditions, a respect for the human experience of patients who are suffering psychologically from their progressive deterioration, and the value placed by society on protecting the life of its vulnerable members. It is important to be right, but the most the philosopher can do for the corporate bottom line is to ensure the profession can show it is really struggling with important competing values. This work shows the respect due this issue.

Framing the Problem and Leadership

The fact of physician sexual abuse of patients became a matter for public exploration recently, causing much anguish all around, although much relief to the victims. The role of philosophy in the early stages was to help the organization get on with finding a frame of reference to properly understand the phenomena and identifying the many different elements that had to be addressed to reconfirm professional control of members' behavior and commitment to meriting the public trust. This intellectual work tangibly shortened the time the organization needed to provide leadership and exude confidence and competence that the problem had a solution at the end of the tunnel. This served to moderate the sense of humiliation felt by many physicians in Ontario and helped us get on with addressing the needs of the victims and the profession.

Making Values in Action Explicit

The OMA has been busy in the fields of doctor-patient communication, bioethics, and physician health programming over the last eight years. These projects were ad hoc and had a life of their own, unlinked to any common or explicit organizational policy. In a very philosophical activity, the common features in these activities were identified and they were found to have a common policy foundation that was ultimately shown to be an expression of the core mission of the organization. This process of identifying the values implicit in action and making them explicit and available for rational future planning and critical appraisal, feels very similar to the kind of work one does in philosophical and ethical analysis.

Accessing Different Points of View

Finally, the medical profession in Ontario has had to interpret its core service values in light of the rapid progression of many social movements, the growth in patient autonomy and choice, the independence demands of the disabled, multiculturalism in health care, etc. The women's movement required significant intellectual work to get inside women's experience with the health care system and how the changing role and position of women in society impacts on the doctor- patient relationship. Those trained in philosophy are good at listening and gaining an understanding of different perspectives. I use this skill to help us find common ground between these movements and the goals of medicine. Our work on different points of view in society often results in the OMA turning up on the progressive side of the spectrum to the benefit of all concerned.

The Philosophical Servant as a Leader

In the field of bioethics, there has been an oil-and-water relationship between physicians interested in the ethical aspects of their clinical work, and their profession, vis-a-vis academic philosophy. The latter saw these physicians as amateurs dabbling in their field, while the physicians couldn't use the academic work to help clarify their duties in clinical settings. The way to avoid irrelevance is to dedicate your philosophical discipline and skills to advancing the intellectual foundations and the sophistication of intellectual activity in practical professional fields, for the mutual benefit of the profession and sick people. It is in this kind of service that non-academic philosophers can hone their Socratic skills and provide real leadership. The style of leadership here is as a servant to the core values of the profession (or institution) which are different from the scientific knowledge and research underlying the field. By doing intellectual work in this context, you are not advancing either science or academic philosophy, but you are advancing the ability of scientists and clinicians to relate their work to the other major values in society, to their own social or intellectual history, and to the fabric of social, intellectual and legal ideas in the larger community, both present and past. I think this work is philosophical in that it deals with foundational thinking. Its method reminds me of Socrates in its emphasis on self- knowledge, questioning, intellectual midwifery. It is a viable and real alternative to academic philosophy for those still turned on by the field. If you find core values and service commitment you can respect, make your contribution to society by way of improving the intellectual work of a relevant profession (institution).

General Observations on Why Philosophy Works

You can know enough to spot uncritical thinking and bias without being an expert in the technical aspects of a field. This is because of the extensive common ground that exists when physicians go from clinical decision-making and clinical politics to the human condition, values and social policies. There is a learning curve here for the philosopher interested in accessing this common ground, but is it accessible with hard work and the trust of physicians. I believe that training in philosophy gives you an ability to move thinking in this arena towards secure, intellectual foundations with a subsequent increase in credibility for the product. The climate of uncertainty you generate when a comfortable position is subsequently seen to be based on superficial thinking need not end up in anger and withdrawal, but don't be surprised at the reaction. I found in otherwise very sophisticated organizations, that people could be very unclear about what values were driving the operation, what their goals were and how little rational strategic planning went on. Someone with philosophical training finds this situation intolerable and makes a solid contribution by challenging the lack of intellectual rigor, and helping to show what the organization is capable of achieving in this regard. Success in this task makes you ultimately useful, which addresses this tendency to react with anger.

You can't underestimate the forces in the real world that induce: narrow thinking, isolation (organizational and professional), close-mindedness, a tendency to perceive the world and life only through one's field of work, our ahistorical outlook, very little feel for our intellectual and social roots, and no patience with the world experience or vision of other people. These forces are a real problem, but generate a need for our skills as the philosopher tries to help a moral institution or profession give day-to-day expression to its fundamental values.

People shrink from uncertainty and like to reduce issues to manageable bites. They also reinterpret their core values and commitments in convenient ways to escape uncertainty. However, you can't always escape in this fast-changing world. In the case of the physicians, the more the public, with its different values, asks for medical services more in tune with its changing needs and experience, the more you have value conflicts where value clarifications and analysis are helpful. Both parties usually don't have the relevant core values articulated or even recognized, and, as such, can't work with the conflicts to find common ground. Philosophy can be a lot of help.

What Skills are Involved in Philosophical Work

The skill is to ask questions that bring out bias, tunnel vision and simplistic problem depictions in a manner that leads to growth because it's not demeaning or destructive. This process energizes the learning mode and confidence in this process and demonstrates that exploration and discussion of value-laden concepts or problems is a rational exercise and not terminally wooly or subjective. The primary growth I want to see takes place in reflective physicians with clinical credibility and leadership potential with their peers. With foundational help from an intellectual midwife, reflective physicians will be the ones who design the policy, mission statement, or recommended action.

The work has a very definite empirical component. We work with what people say, what people say they mean or do, and what in fact they do, with service gaps and conflicts between patients and physicians, conflicts between physicians in terms of roles, and the intellectual aspects of policy formation and planning. There is much writing and rewriting in exercising the enormous effort required to go from muddled dialogue or thinking, to clarity in the identification of the real issue(s), or to a vision of what people really want to see happen. I am continually working with multiple world views, the patient's experience of illness, community and academic physicians, government, the well public, ethnic groups, young and old, male and female, so there is a broad horizontal feel to the work in contrast to vertical depth. The strength of the Socratic method really derives from the practical expertise you develop from the breadth of experience gained helping with value clarification and the process of clear thinking in these many different contexts. The philosopher, unlike others, is comfortable putting on these multiple perspectives and experiences, and using their similarities and differences to help analyze the matter at hand.

How Does the Philosopher Find Non-Academic Work?

  1. Identify what values you feel will make your life meaningful.
  2. Find organizations that appear to share those values.
  3. Find the subset that are reflective (i.e., reflective people in power).
  4. Sell your analytic, communication and thinking skills
  5. Understand the concept of the servant as the leader, and the Socratic method.
  6. Merit trust, respect others, and maximize integrity.
  7. Once hired, be prepared to grow.

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Essay by Sanford Thatcher

Sanford G. Thatcher
Director, Pennsylvania State University Press

820 North University Drive
University Park, PA 16802
Phone: (814) 865-1327

Fax: (814) 863-1408

If anyone had asked me in mid-1967 when I joined Princeton University Press as a fledgling copyeditor whether my training in philosophy at Princeton and Columbia would likely contribute much to my career, I would have said: "Probably not." But nearly thirty years later, having reached the pinnacle of my profession as director of the press at Penn State (where I have been since mid-1989), I can now look back on those intervening years and reach quite the opposite conclusion: "Decidedly so" is the answer I would now give to the same question if asked of me today retrospectively. Let me explain why by showing how philosophy helped me during each stage of my career.

Good copyediting requires a special sensitivity to language and skill in using it. My education in philosophy not only taught me to be a careful writer myself but gave me the ability to help others write more clearly and precisely. Philosophy teaches one to be attuned to nuances of meaning, and it also provides instruction in the art of constructing cogent arguments, by organizing thoughts thematically and using evidence logically to support theses put forward. This kind of training proved invaluable to me during the three years I worked principally as a copyeditor, when I went through manuscripts line by line trying to help authors make the meanings of their statements as clear as possible and the organization of their arguments structurally and logically sound.

As I moved into acquiring manuscripts in 1969, these same skills continued to serve me well, but were applied at a different level of analysis -- more at the macro than the micro level. Acquiring editors need to make quick but reliable assessments of the merits of manuscripts, in order to judge whether they would likely contribute significantly to the advancement of scholarship and to the development of the press's list and whether they are therefore worth subjecting to further scrutiny by experts in the field. The ability to detect carelessness in the use of language to convey meaning and to construct arguments enabled me to make such preliminary judgments about manuscripts no matter what their specific subject matter might be. And as acquiring editors usually need to cover more fields than they can be reasonably expected to have any special academic expertise in themselves, this generalized capacity helped me become an efficient editorial "gatekeeper."

Princeton University Press, having no other editors on its staff at the time with any special knowledge of philosophy, also gave me the opportunity to exercise my training in the field more directly. Even while still a copyeditor, I was permitted to screen manuscripts submitted by philosophers and recommend what action should be taken on them. When I succeeded the acquiring editor who was responsible for the social sciences, I was allowed to start actively developing a list in philosophy, which theretofore had not been a strength at that press. One early opportunity I had to make a contribution came from my membership in the Society of Philosophy and Public Policy, which had been established in May 1969. From discussions in that group, led by Marshall Cohen and Tom Nagel, arose the suggestion to found a new journal, and I jumped at the chance to help get Philosophy and Public Affairs launched at Princeton University Press in 1971. Many other successes followed, most notably perhaps the publication in 1979 of Richard Rorty's now classic Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, for which I had the special pleasure of being the sponsoring editor, having earlier been a student of Rorty (who was one of two readers of my Princeton senior thesis on Sartre's ethics).

While advancing through various administrative positions at Princeton -- to Assistant Director in 1977 and then Editor-in-Chief in 1985 -- I continued to work as an acquiring editor, as I do today even while being director of a press. Thus these skills of manuscript analysis have served me in good stead throughout my entire career. For a much more detailed discussion of what is involved in this kind of job in scholarly publishing, readers may want to consult my essay entitled "Listbuilding at University Presses" in Editors as Gatekeepers, edited by Rita J. Simon and James F. Fyfe (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994), pages 209-258.

Being director of a press necessarily broadens one's horizons to make one more acutely conscious of how the business of scholarly publishing fits into the wider worlds both of higher education and of the general publishing industry. Planning the future of one's own press requires thinking systematically, with awareness of the complex interconnections and conflicts between the demands of the tenure-and-promotion process within universities, which presses are inevitably entangled with, and the demands of the marketplace, which presses must heed if they are to survive as fully or partially self- supporting enterprises. Training in philosophy gives one this wider vision and an appreciation for systemic complexity.

Copyright law, which undergirds all publishing, is a good example of one application of systematic thought. The debates raging now over how "fair use" should apply in our new era of electronic communications show well how errors can easily be made by focusing too narrowly on one element of the system of scholarly communication and being oblivious to the bigger picture. This is a subject in which I early took special interest, becoming a member in the early 1970s of the copyright committees of two publishing trade associations (one of which I now chair) and later a member of the board of directors of the Copyright Clearance Center, which was established in 1978 when the Copyright Act of 1976 went into effect. Copyright has been justly called "the metaphysics of the law." What better training, then, could one have to develop some expertise in it than philosophy?

Publishing, I conclude after more than a quarter-century in the business, offers a hospitable environment for philosophers, whose skills can find ready application perhaps especially in editorial departments. For anyone interested in exploring a career in this profession, I would highly recommend attending one of the summer institutes that offer an intensive exposure to the business of publishing, those at the University of Denver and at Radcliffe being the best by common acclaim. I can't say that taking such a course is absolutely necessary -- as I just leapt into the business myself without any such prior introduction -- but the networking that comes through these institutions can only help newcomers get their feet in the door, which is not always an easy task as there are always many more applicants than there are jobs available.

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The responses to the questionnaire

Respondents were asked to provide their name and where they worked, their employer, job title and principal duties, the non-philosophical background pertinent to their job, how they obtained their job, and the personal characteristics and philosophical skills they use in their job, and further comments.

Stephen Albaugh

Iowa Institute of Philosophy

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: None.

How You Obtained Your Job: I created it.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: This position requires all of my philosophical skills, as well as skills in publishing, marketing, and speaking.

Comments: I also manage residential treatment facilities for the mentally ill. I use my skills here in developing systems.

Harry K. Armstrong

Defense Personnel Support Center

Job Title and Principal Duties: Defense Logistic Agency's Midlevel Management Acquisition Intern.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Immediately after entering the federal workforce, I took advantage of their educational benefits, realizing that an advanced degree in philosophy would not be understood or ignored for its beneficial attributes. I completed my Master of Science in Administration Degree and am currently completing my MBA. This aggressive behavior, and deep commitment to education, has benefited myself, my career, and the federal government.

How You Obtained Your Job: Initially, the federal government hired me off the street as part of their "Outstanding Scholars Program." This is a federal governmental program that selects college graduates, regardless of their fields of study and who have an overall G.P.A. of 3.5 or above, and places them in a two-year,fast paced training environment that ultimately yields competent, highly educated procurement professionals. The program I am presently participating in, for midlevel managers, was obtained through fierce competition and by being nominated by a high-ranking selection committee.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Usein Your Job: Critical thinking and problem solving can be utilized in every facet of life. My philosophical education has allowed me to enter a business environment with a different and untainted point of view, which has enabled me to look at and contribute ideas and methodologies that ordinary business personnel may have either ignored or were totally unaware of. With the aid of logic, and considering an issue from several perspectives besides the traditional short-term bottom-line approach, I have contributed to many leading-edge governmental projects that have paved the way for many agencies to follow.

Comments: I would encourage anyone, especially those individuals interested in pursuing a business career, to be exposed, to the maximum extent possible, to philosophy. New, innovative, and creative methods of doing business are needed in this increasingly competitive business environment and, unfortunately, these ideas will probably not come from those with a traditional tunnel-visioned business degree. Philosophy, on the other hand, has opened my eyes, and other individuals' eyes as well, to more practical and pragmatic approaches to daily activities that saved millions of dollars and have benefited everyone involved.

Eugene Atkin

Oakton Community College

Job Title and Principal Duties: Coordinator of Research and Planning. Conduct institutional research including academic assessment at institutional and program levels, transfer student transcript analysis, district census information, and various in-house ad hoc projects. Write surveys for current students and alumni, analyze data, and interpret findings. Ex officio member of Program Review Committee. Use SAS and SQL programming languages on mainframe and several PC applications in Windows.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Statistics, research design, management skills. A solid liberal arts background from Grinnell College, where I was a History major.

How You Obtained Your Job: I finished my Ph.D. in Higher Education, an interdisciplinary program in the Graduate School at the University of Minnesota. Institutional research is a "natural" for someone with this qualification. My present position was advertised, but networking was a factor in my being employed here.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Usein Your Job: Writing clearly, understanding faculty members from the widest range of disciplines. I am frequently able to make distinctions that bridge different points of view. I use philosophical ideas to translate faculty ideas into survey questionnaire items.

Comments: I confine my "purely" philosophical interest as an adjunct faculty member in philosophy, teaching evenings and weekends for Roosevelt University, Chicago, in suburban Arlington Heights.

Rex Clemmensen

American College Testing (ACT)

Job Title and Principal Duties: Senior Test Specialist with Law School Admission Test.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Ability to meet deadlines, tact, writing skills, knowledge of psychometric issues is helpful.

How You Obtained Your Job: Responded to a newspaper ad. Now advertise for new staff in JFP, on logic bulletin boards and in newspapers.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: Tact, organization, logical skills in argument analysis, clarity of expression.

Comments: My staff consists primarily of philosophy Ph.D.s. I have found that skills in analytic philosophy, formal logic, and informal logic are extremely valuable in the construction of fair and defensible standardized tests.

Stephen P. Foster

Central Michigan University Libraries


Job Title and Principal Duties: Director of Technical Services.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: MLS degree, library-computer experience, library-administrative experience.

How You Obtained Your Job: Position required a Masters of Library Science plus five years of library experience in a technical services setting.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: Logic, writing skills, application of reasoning to questions of value (e.g.,how to allocate resources, etc.), planning ability.

Comments: Many academic library positions require a second Masters' degree in a subject area. I have a Ph.D. in philosophy, which made me the logical choice to be the library liaison to the Philosophy Department at CMU. I order and select library materials for philosophy.

Robert T. Giuffrida Jr.

State University of New York System Administration through the Research Foundation of SUNY

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: In my 5.5 years with NYSDSS I learned welfare employment programs plus general knowledge about welfare. I am my office's resource person on welfare regulations and administrative practices in NYS. Day-to-day, I have program oversight and technical assistance responsibilities at all of our program sites. I also play an active role in developing new program initiatives, especially in response to changing state and federal welfare policies.

How You Obtained Your Job: I was recruited by my present director based on my work for my previous employer (NYS Department of Social Services, Bureau of Employment Programs) on a joint undertaking of the two agencies -- The Bridge Program. The latter provides training and supporting services to persons receiving AFDC so that they can obtain gainful employment and eventually leave the welfare rolls. Our program operates out of the 10 educational opportunity centers (EOLS) in the State's major urban areas.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: Ability to absorb large quantities of written information, to analyze complex situations and propose possible courses of action to my director, to write various types of program documents quickly and clearly, to interact successfully with a wide variety of people (both in terms of personality types and professional function), to speak to groups of people in my line of work on current topics, lead discussion groups, etc.

Comments: I find my philosophical training most helpful in enabling me to analyze situations and communicate my thoughts clearly and convincingly. The synthetic function is important too, for grasping the "big picture" pertaining to our work and observing relationships and connections that can be utilized to further our work.

Edwin M. Hartman

Faculty of Management and Department of Philosophy Rutgers University

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: MBA and Consulting.

How You Obtained Your Job: After a short career as an assistant professor of philosophy I got an MBA and then a job as a management consultant. After five years of that I became involved in some ventures, which proved not to require full-time attention. I began a tenure-track job in management in 1984, got tenure in 1989, and over the ensuing years have taught philosophy courses with ever greater frequency -- business ethics mainly, but not only. I am now a full professor.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: I teach and write about business ethics. The skills are similar.

Comments: Philosophers ought to consider fields with which philosophy can overlap: law and business are the obvious ones. The professional schools pay well, and interdisciplinary work is fun and valuable. Getting the professional degree is a bit of a pain, but a big help.

Joanne B. Jarquin, Esquire

Smith, Somerville & Case, L.L.C.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: After having completed my education in philosophy, I attended law school and received my Juris Doctor degree.

How You Obtained Your Job: I obtained my present position as an attorney after having worked as a Summer Associate with my law firm following my second year of law school.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: As an attorney involved analyzing, synthesizing, and writing about the law. The philosophical skills I rely upon most include the writing, organizational, and analytical skills I developed during my philosophy training. The ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses in positions and to speak and write clearly and persuasively are also very important. My background in the philosophy of science lends an interesting perspective to the scientific and medical issues I encounter in my practice. My philosophy background also benefited me a great deal in law school, since analysis, synthesis and application of the law to facts is predominant in legal studies.

Comments: My switch from philosophy to law gave me both personal and professional satisfaction. A career in law provides the balance of theoretical and practical work I desired.

Deborah E. Kerman

Law School Admission Service

Law School Admission Council (LSAC)

Job Title and Principal Duties: Senior Test Specialist. Duties common to all test specialists: perform reviews of test items and test forms (content, statistical, and editorial) to be used on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT); manage the review process, both in-house and for external contractor. Content reviews address both logical soundness and sensitivity to certain population subgroups (women, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Native Americans, people with disabilities, and Canadians). Monitor the performance of test writing contractors. Evaluate and respond to challenges to test items. Engage in research and development of new test item types, formats, and test information and preparation materials. Assess job applicants and interview applicants. As a Senior Test Specialist, I also have the responsibility of managing an item type; mine is Logical Reasoning. This responsibility involves ensuring a sufficient pool of Logical Reasoning items with acceptable content and statistical properties from which create 4 LSATs per year (Logical Reasoning items comprise approximately half of each LSAT).

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Undergraduate degree in mathematics (helpful but not required); broad liberal arts education; strong communication skills (written and verbal; many of these were developed while I was a graduate student and then an assistant professor of philosophy); experience working closely with people of both sexes and various ethnic and geographical backgrounds.

How You Obtained Your Job: Responded to a notice in Jobs for Philosophers, completed an LSAC work sample, and had an on-site interview.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Usein Your Job: Philosophical skills: logic, both formal and informal; constructing arguments (in writing and in conversation); close careful reading of texts; making conceptual distinctions and determining their relative importance. Personal characteristics: arguing constructively (rather than just to make points to win); ability to separate oneself from one's work; non-perfectionism; paying attention to details; being organized.

Comments: Our work is philosophical, but we are still creating a product with a deadline -- an extreme perfectionist would have a very hard time with this job. More than the specific information, the skills and attitudes learned in philosophy are useful and relevant in this job, though specific knowledge comes in handy too (especially logic).

Jonathon Ketchurn

The Paperless Office

Job Title and Principal Duties: Computer programming

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Musicology. The code- performance relations in music (where notation is a code) and computing have some similarity. Technical writing abilities also helpful.

How You Obtained Your Job: I started a business.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Usein Your Job: Sense of structure.

Comments: The study of philosophy should begin in high school -- liberated from English departments -- and become understood as a fundamental liberal art. Canada is currently ahead of the U.S. in this respect.

Stephanie R. Lewis

Municipal Capital Management, Inc.

202 Carnegie Center, Suite 111

Princeton, NJ 08540

Job Title and Principal Duties: Managing Director, not that that means much in a small firm. We are financial advisors to municipalities and public agencies, helping with planning for, and ultimately financing, projects like schools and sewage treatment plants. We are also our own secretaries, bookkeepers, and computer administrators, and whatever else comes along.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: The MBA was a necessary step in making the transition from philosophy to public finance, not so much for what I learned in business school as for the culture shift and getting the qualification for getting hired. The rest was on-the-job training.

How You Obtained Your Job: This is the third job in my non-academic career, and the story really begins with the first job. It all began with the decision to go and get an MBA and tool up for something other than a marginal academic career. I majored in finance at Wharton and did a minor in decision sciences, thinking that some computer skills would bring me more notice from recruiters than a finance major alone. (This was in the early '80's, when personal computers were just becoming a part of the scene, and my 1960's computer skills were hopelessly obsolete.) I wound up in public finance more or less by chance. My first job out of business school was in public finance at Kidder Peabody, and came through the placement office at Wharton and the usual set of interviews. What got me hired was the combination of a finance degree from a major business school, the computer and analytical skills, and the department head's thought that a humanities type would bring a long view of things. I left Kidder for a job with a firm in Princeton, and after nearly six years with that firm, another of its employees and I decided to quit our jobs and set up a new firm on our own. That was in early 1991.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: This answer is much longer than the one above, and sounds like a list of skills and characteristics that are important to philosophy. Some important ones: primal analytical ability, middling mathematical ability, ability to deal with complex issues and keep the various threads separate, ability to present a position clearly and articulate it, ability to argue coherently .lucid prose style, being a self-starter, long attention span, ability to do forty-five things at once, a liking for talmudic conversation with others in the profession of similar intellectual style (in my case it's tax lawyers, who are the closest things to philosophers that I routinely work with).

Comments: I want to make two points. First, I firmly believe that aptitude for and training in philosophy fit a person to train for and do more or less any other kind of work. True, other kinds of jobs, such as mine, require a switch in career style that not every academic finds congenial. Other people set the problems and issues I work on for me, and there is no such thing as an eternal verity. But the important thing is that, compared to teaching and scholarly work in philosophy, most other things are easy. Second, I also believe that it is not possible to identify existing career paths for philosophers who want to do something that isn't academic philosophy. My case is typical: a decision to abandon an academic career for something completely different, a training program with a new credential at the end of it, and then sheer happenstance.

Stephen W. Luebke

Law School Admission Council

P.O. Box 40

Newtown PA 18940

Job Title and Principal Duties: Director of Test Development. Develop test questions and test forms for the Law School Admission Test, a major standardized admissions test required for applicants to most U.S. and Canadian law schools. Acquire test questions. Review, revise, rewrite, edit, and process test questions. Assemble and review test forms. Review and reply to challenges to test questions. Monitor statistical performance of test questions. Hire and oversee staff doing similar work. Participate in test-related research and in test planning and development with psychometricians.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Some knowledge of statistics or educational measurement is useful in this job, but not necessary -- the necessary knowledge can be acquired on the job. I did some graduate course work in psychometrics while working. My previous work administering a grant project and a consortium was useful in the managerial and administrative aspects of the job.

How You Obtained Your Job: I conducted a search for "education-related" jobs for which my graduate study and teaching experience provided an appropriate background. I had held several such positions since leaving teaching. I found an ad for a position at LSAC in the Chronicle for Higher Education. The initial position involved reviewing reading passages and handling copyright issues, but I was quickly moved into a management position and then became director of Test Development. After some reorganization my position became Senior Test Specialist.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Present Position: Reviewing, revising, and editing test questions draw heavily on the analytical skills taught in analytic philosophy -- close reading and analysis of texts, careful drawing of implications, identifying ambiguities and category mistakes. Since much of the LSA T consists of reasoning questions, my specific training in logic and informal logic was directly applicable, along with the general philosophical skill of argument analysis. Working with reading comprehension questions calls upon philosophical skill in understanding and analyzing texts. Other skills used include the ability to see multiple readings and multiple sides of an argument and a sensitivity to issues of fairness and the concerns of various population groups. Writing and editing skills and experience writing questions for classroom tests -- particularly multiple-choice questions -- are directly applicable to writing and revising questions, although for high-stakes admissions tests the standards are much higher than those usually applied in classroom tests. The job draws so heavily and directly on philosophical skills and training that one of my colleagues likes to call what we do "applied philosophy."

Comments: When I found this job, I immediately thought that this was an ideal non-academic job for a philosopher, directly applying philosophical skills. And many philosophers do the job very well. Training in analytic philosophy, informal logic, and philosophy of language seem most directly applicable to reasoning testing. The major tasks in reviewing test questions are to make sure that they are clear and unambiguous, test for the appropriate skill, and have one and only one best answer. The job is intellectually challenging and many interesting philosophical questions arise in reviewing test questions. There are several major testing companies and several smaller ones. Most of the larger ones already have some philosophers on their staffs. For other companies it might be necessary to demonstrate how philosophical training applies to editing test questions. Some companies advertise positions in JFP (in the past this has included Law School Admission Council, American College Testing, and Educational Testing Service). This is the kind of job in which philosophers can both use their skills and find some fulfillment.

It should be noted that another kind of job that is available to philosophers is writing test questions on a free-lance basis. Currently, the primary user of these questions for LSAT type tests is American College Testing in Iowa City, Iowa, but most other testing companies also buy test questions from independent writers for a wide range of tests ranging from K-12 achievement tests to admissions tests to professional qualifications tests. Many of these tests involve reading and reasoning questions for which training in philosophy provides a relevant background. Testing companies also use test editors who have backgrounds in a variety of academic disciplines, and philosophical training would also be a useful background for these positions.

Robert Pendleton

First National Bank of Chicago

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Jobs in computer systems development are largely granted based on specific technical skills. Modern examples would be computer software developers with education or experience in Microsoft Windows programming, or in PC development languages, such as Basic, Pascal, or C++. Investments in training in these and other emerging areas (such as network communications) will be worth the cost in terms of job possibilities. Such education may be necessary, for few corporations today will offer the kind of ‘on-the-job’ training that would allow immediate access to the best computer systems jobs. Other skills that will help once you've gotten your first computer job are: communication skills (you'd be surprised at how few technical people can effectively explain what they're doing), and people skills. Effective project leaders and systems managers are always in demand.

How You Obtained Your Job: I am a computer systems analyst and designer. This is my second job in computer systems development. I first entered the systems field through a l6-week training course offered by a former employer. I obtained my present position because of the skills I had developed in several years in my prior job. Being a good communicator also helped.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: I feel that I have an advantage in my systems career in terms of having a certain type of philosophical skill, and I assume the type of skill involved is the ability to figure out complicated problems of logical variety. Added to that are the kinds of communications skills usually found among philosophers at the graduate level. A large part of my job involves explaining technical options and designs to relatively non-technical managers and business leaders.

Edward I. Pitts

Clark, Daly, and Pitts, Attorneys-at-Law

How You Obtained Your Job: Left college teaching. Attended law school. Worked in various law firms as an associate. Developed a specialty practice in workplace injuries. Formed present partnership in 1992.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Negotiating skills. Verbal skill combined with ability to think on my feet acquired while teaching. Writing clarity acquired in graduate school.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Present Position: Ability to organize complex factual patterns; analytic skill; writing to convince; organized approach to complex daily schedule -- all of which I attribute largely to graduate school training in philosophy.

Comments: I find working for myself in a non-academic setting very fulfilling. I'm actually able to see the concrete results of my hard work. The pay is better, too.

Reginald Regis

Eastern Futures Inc. (commodity brokerage firm)

Job Title and Principal Duties: Manager of Branch Office and Commodity Broker. Duties include supervising of office personnel and marketing commodity futures and options.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Business background. Since my graduation from the University of Texas in 1965 with a BA in philosophy, my professional life has been spent in the brokerage industry, where I developed my communication skills.

Carol Roberts

Self-employed copy editor and back of the book indexer.

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Good editing and indexing skills, thorough familiarity with the Chicago Manual of Style, familiarity with a variety of marketing techniques, solid computer skills, knowledge of publishing methods and schedules.

How You Obtained Your Job: I took an indexing course, practiced a lot, worked in a publications office for three years, and built up the business gradually.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: Personal: ability to schmooze, attention to detail, ability to handle pressure of tight deadlines, flexibility, good writing skills (especially for editing), patience, neat hand writing (for editing), accurate typing (for indexing), tact, good research skills. Philosophical: analytical mind (especially for indexing), familiarity with several branches of philosophy, familiarity with philosophy jargon and philosophers' egos, good grasp of logic (baby and formal) and familiarity with logical notation.

Comments: Not everyone who works with words is either cut out to be, or enjoys, editing or indexing. Moreover, the skills involved are quite different from writing and must be mastered before you can get even your first assignment. On the other hand, once you have some training, there is plenty of work for free-lance editors and indexers, and it can be approached initially as a part-time job. Although the mental work involved is quite different from doing philosophy and, let's face it, the job doesn't carry the same prestige as professorship, I find this kind of work has the following advantages: it's challenging and intellectually stimulating; the drudgery is minimal; it's portable (i.e., you can move around the country with little interruption of your business); you have lots of control over the kind and amount of work.

John Shier

Bellin Memorial Hospital

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Ten years as a Professor of Philosophy -- teaching is a large component of the nursing profession. Eighteen years as Chief Professional Officer of a not-for-profit corporation -- skills in management, supervision, leadership, time management, etc.

How You Obtained Your Job: Having volunteered in hospice as a patient care-giver while in previous employment, I was given strong consideration when I completed my Bachelor's in Nursing.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Usein Your Job: The needs of patients and families are never simple. One can treat only disease or injury or one can attempt to respond to the whole complex of problems presented by patients. My background in philosophy encourages, even demands, that I approach my patients in a holistic manner. The intellectual discipline demanded by philosophy is very supportive of the ability to manage the diverse roles of the nurse who is a skilled provider of care, a middle-level manager of resources, including nursing assistants, LPNs, and a variety of other specialties, a subordinate or partner to physicians, and an independent problem-solver responding to both physical and psycho-social needs of patients and families.

Carol Bosche Tucker

Educational Testing Service

Rosedale Road

Princeton NJ 08541-0001

Non-philosophical Background Pertinent to Your Job: Computer programming for research in mechanical translation (at MIT) and visual perception (at Bell Laboratories). Teaching English composition and history of philosophy at a junior college (Union College, Cranford, NJ). Civil Rights activity.

How You Obtained Your Job: Word of mouth (from a philosopher who knew that a philosopher would be leaving), then promotions.

Personal Characteristics and Philosophical Skills You Use in Your Job: Ability to analyze assumptions and generate hypotheses relevant to doing research on mental processes and to proposing new modes of testing. Writing ability relevant to writing publishable prose, revising and editing work of others, and communicating with organizations. Ability to see the point of material in other subject fields. Ability to judge social and political sensitivity of issues. Knowledge of limits of formal logic.

Return to the table of contents

The list: some other philosophers in non-academic careers

The list has some entries with complete information, some with none at all other than a person's name. We include the sketchy ones to give readers a picture of the number of people in non-academic careers, and the kinds of careers they have. This is not meant as a contact list.

Dr. Thomas R. Bennet
Bennet & Associates
P. 0. Box 8046
Fremont, CA 94537

Mr. Ted L. Bolen
c/o Seven Bridges Press
P. 0. Box 958
Chappaqua, NY 10514-0958

Ms. Nance Cunningham
Bioethics, specifically medical ethics, with a special interest in the care of neonatal infants

Jean Diller
Congressional staffer

Dr. Strahan Donnelley
The Hastings Center
106 West 78th Street
New York, NY 10024

Mr. Adrian Driscoll
c/o Routledge
29 West 35th Street
New York, NY 10001

Dr. Lili Duda
School of Veterinary Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
3850 Spruce Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010
Veterinary oncology

Prof. R. Edward Freeman
Director, Olsson Center for Applied Ethics
Elis and Signe Olsson Professor of Business Administration
Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration
University of Virginia
Box 6550
Charlottesville V A 22906-6550
Research, teaching, and consulting in applied ethics and management

Dr. Dierdre Frontczak

Prof. Paul D. Gerdes
Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Gloucester Point, VA 23062-1346
Marine scientist

Prof. Michael A. Gillette
Bioethical Services of Virginia
P.0. Box 3468
Lynchburg, VA 24503
Bioethics; consulting

Dr. Mychael Gleeson
Mychael Co.
P.0. Box 212
720 6th Street
New Westminster BC

Mr. William Graves
Dr. Robert I. Halpern
Moody's Investors Service, Inc.
99 Church Street
New York, NY 10007
Vice President, credit ratings and analysis (with a background in law: bond counsel)

Dr. Nathaniel Heiner
Chief Knowledge Officer & Chief Information Officer
U.S. Coast Guard
2100 Second Street SW
Washington, DC 20593-0002

Mr. Laurence Hitterdale
Editing; consulting

Dr. James N. Hullett

Mr. C. H. Kenneth Knisely
Milk Bottle Productions, Inc.
P.0. Box 10325
Arlington VA 22210-1325
Producer of TV and video, including the PBS series "No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed"

Dr. Thomas C. Leonard-Martin
Department of Ophthalmology
8009 MCE Vanderbilt University
Nashville TN 37232-8808

Dr. Merrill Matthews, Jr .
National Center for Policy Analysis
12655 North Central Expressway
Dallas, TX 75243
Government policy analyst

Dr.Eric M. Meslin
Sunnybrook Health Science Center
2075 Bayview Avenue, Room E-203
Toronto Ontario
M4N 3M5

Ms. Connie Missimer
Secondary education

Dr. Steve Moninger
Moninger's brew Supply
3905 Fredericksburg Road
San Antonio TX 78201
Producer of brewing equipment and supplies

Dr. John C. Moskop
Medical Humanities Department
East Carolina University
School of Medicine
Greenville NC 27858

Dr. John Mulhem
Consulting to the Department of Defense; retired naval officer
Dr. Mary Mulhem
Consulting to the Department of Defense

Prof. Timothy F. Murphy
Medical Ed., M/C
University of Illinois College of Medicine
Chicago, IL 60612-7309

Laurence E. Nemirow
Davis, Graham & Stubbs, Attorneys-at-Law
370 17th Street, Suite 4700
Denver, CO 80201

Susan Nicholson
Ropes and Gray
225 Franklin Street
Boston MA 02110
Attorney, specializing in health care and ethical issues connected with human experimentation and AIDS

Mr. Erik Parens
The Hastings Center
255 Elm Road
Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510

Professor Richard B. Parker
Department of Law
Hiroshima Shudo University
1717 Ohtsuka Asaminami-Ku
Hiroshima 731-31
Professor of Law

William Polkowski
Presbyterian minister; counsellor

Mr. Thomas A. Post
Department of Social Science
Millbrook School
Millbrook, NJ 12545
Secondary school teacher

Dr. James Read
Salvation Army Ethics Center
447 Webb Place
Winnipeg Manitoba

Mr. Carlin Romano
Literary Critic
Philadelphia Inquirer
400 North Broad Street
Philadelphia, PA 19101
Journalist and critic

Dr. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone
Dr. Robert Skovira
Computer Information Systems Department
Robert Morris College
Coraopolis, PA 15108
Academic computer scientist

Brian Cantwell Smith
Xerox Parc
3333 Coyote Hill Road
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Computer scientist in industry

Mr. Gordon Sollars
Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration
University of Virginia
Box 6550
Charlottesville, VA 22906-6550
Graduate student in management and information. Formerly worked as computer manager on Wall Street.

Dr. Arthur W. Stawinski
Computer systems specialist
Dr. Paul B. Thompson
Purdue University

Dr. Jane F. Uebelhoer
School of Business
Marymount University
2807 North Glebe Road
Arlington, VA 22207
Professor of management

James E. Ward
Director, Biostatistics and Research Data Services
Knoll Pharmaceutical Company
199 Cherry Hill Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054-0603
pharmaceuticals research and development

Professor Patricia H. Werhane
Ruffin Chair of Business Ethics
Colgate-Darden School of Business
University of Virginia
P. 0. Box 6550
Charlottesville, VA 22906-6550
Professor of Business Ethics

Dr. Peter C. Williams
Preventive Medicine 3L-086
Health Sciences Center
Stony Brook, NY 11790

J. Stanley Yake

Dr. Steven Yates
Center, Economic Personal Action Institute
161 Ottawa Avenue NW #301
Grand Rapids, MI 49503

Return to the table of contents

Resources: some sources of information

This section provides some information for people thinking about choosing a career other than an academic appointment in philosophy, or just looking for a job. It includes printed materials, videos, and some websites. Much of the printed material is available in libraries: some, and most of the video material, is available only by ordering from the publisher and paying for the materials ordered.

The section on websites is meant only as a starting point. There is a huge amount of information (and an even huger amount of disinformation and noninformation) on the World Wide Web, and sites and their contents come and go at a dizzying rate. A search on "philosophy" returns more than 100,000 sites, a great many of which have nothing whatever to do with what we think of as philosophy.

A good strategy for finding useful sites and pages is to start with the sites listed here, follow links, and then just search. Let your mouse do the walking. The APA website, at, is the best starting point of all.

General information on philosophers' basic skills

  1. Herbenick, Raymond, "How Philosophy Students Compete on Basic Skills." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 54 number 4, November 1981.
    A comparison of results of tests given to students in various disciplines by the Educational Testing Service. Philosophers as a group do very well on such tests as ORE, LSAT, MCAT, and OMAT.

  2. Passmore, John, "The End of Philosophy". Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 66, March 1996. Contains some anecdotal evidence, and some stirring prose, about the value of studying philosophy in developing habits of mind applicable to virtually any intellectual endeavor.


    This is the page of the national office of the American Philosophical Association. It is frequently updated and enhanced. It contains a wealth of information of use to philosophers in all stations of life, at all stages of their careers, both within and without the academy. It has information about the APA, its activities, its members, meetings, and many other useful things as well. Access to the main web page and much of the information does not require an account or a password, but some areas of the site are open only to members, for example current Jobs for Philosophers, the current Proceedings and Addresses, lists of fellowships and grants, and the membership directory.

    There is a list of programs in bioethics, with links to get more information about those programs. Following links from the APA page will get you to many philosophy department pages and pages of APA members. A lot of the information in these pages is about philosophy departments and their members, courses, graduate programs, and so on. But there is also other information of particular interest to philosophers outside of academia, or those who do not have access to a philosophy department or university library: sites devoted to the works of particular philosophers, electronic journals, use groups of interest to philosophers, etc.

    This is the Episteme page. It has lots and lots of links to other sites of general interest to philosophers. There are pages devoted to famous philosophers, including some living ones. There are many pages of professors and students. There are links to on-line texts, both historical and current works in philosophy. Many organizations and events are listed, there are links to lots of newsgroups, and there are even pictures.

    This is the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. This is an on-line encyclopedia of philosophy. The project is new: so far, there are about fifty entries. The encyclopedia is intended to be an authoritative reference work, suitable for use by students and professionals in philosophy and related disciplines, as well as by members of the general public. It is a dynamic document: authors have access to their entries, and can keep them up to date. New material is added frequently. All entries and revisions are refereed. This document is unique: it is the only encyclopedia that never goes out of date!

    This is the website of the National Council of Independent Scholars. It is full of information about resources for scholars outside of the academy, including library sites open to public access, electronic journals, and websites in many disciplines, including philosophy.

    This is a commercial jobsearch site, with job postings, resume and career search advice, and listings of jobs by community. It has a lot of ads and links to fee-charging services and sites, but the free part of it just might turn out to be helpful. No doubt there are other similar sites. Search on "jobs" or "careers" and see what happens. The probability of finding something of obvious use or interest is not high, but the site gives a useful idea of the nature of commercial jobsearch resources on the Web.

    An email listserv focuses on non-academic careers for philosophers.

    Peter Suber’s list of links to many websites with jobs for philosophers, both within and outside the academy.

    An international jobs website.

Career indices

  1. Akey, Denise S., Encyclopedia of Associations. Volume I: National Organizations of U.S. . Volume II: Geographic and Executive Indexes. 19th edition. Detroit MI: Gale Research Co., 1985. A more recent edition may be available.

  2. Provides the name of organizations that have activities for almost any interest area. Provides a good starting point to collect helpful information for job searches.

  3. American Directory of Job and Labor Market: Where to Find Government Job and Labor Market lnformation for Little or No Money. 1993.
    Contains information about where to find free and low-cost publications, how to access government job and labor databases right from your own personal computer, and pinpoints the locations of key government personnel and employment centers nationwide. Relatively up-to-date, specialized information difficult to find elsewhere.

  4. Occupational Outlook Handbook. WashingtonDC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1994. Provides information concerning what a person does on the job, what abilities and interests are needed, schooling or training required, working conditions and projected job opportunities. Published annually in early July.

  5. Petras, Kathryn, Jobs 1996. New York NY: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
    Provides up-to-date job information by occupation, by industry and by region from coast to coast. Includes jobdescriptions, salary levels, and growth potential, working conditions, professional associations, and general employment trends for the coming decade. Published annually.

  6. Pollack, Sandy, Alternative Careers for Teachers. Harvard, MA: Harvard Common Press, 1984.
    Emphasizes the many options available to someone with a teaching background. A useful overview to start branching out.

  7. The Whole Work Catalog. Boulder CO: The New Careers Center, 1515 23rd Street, PO Box 339-MK, Boulder, CO 80306. Also available on CD-ROM.

  8. Krannich, Ronald, The Best Jobs for the 1990s and Into the 21st Century. Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publishing, 1995.
    Forecasts 29 major trends for jobs and careers. Includes information about opportunities for older workers, women and immigrants, and about part- time and temporary employment.

  9. Hecht, Cheryl S., Free and Inexpensive Career Materials: A Resource Directory. Garrett Park MD: Garrett Park Press, 1995. To get a list of current materials, and to order, contact Garrett Park Press, P.O. Box 190B, Garrett Park, MD 20896.
    Describes some of the best free and inexpensive materials available from over 800 organizations, complete with contact information, citations of available publications, and an index showing where information on 320 different occupations may be acquired.

  10. Herbenick, Raymond, Careers of Philosophy Students, 1901-1994. Available from the Philosophy Department, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469.

  11. Career Opportunities News - 6 issues/year.
    Each issue covers employment trends, free and inexpensive career materials, new reports and new books, fields with jobs, liberal arts education and careers, minority and women's interest, financial aid, etc.

  12. Schmidt, Robert, The National Job Line Directory. Holbrook MA: Bob Adams Press, 1994. For a current list of materials, and to order, contact Adams Media Corp., 260 Center Street, Holbrook, MA 02343, phone (800) USA-JOBS.
    Offers a nationwide listing of over 2,000 organizations that post job openings by phone. Includes descriptions of each organization and a detailed section on how best to use this often-overlooked job search method.

  13. The Hidden Job Market. Princeton NJ: Peterson's Guides, Inc. To get a list of current materials, and to order, contact Peterson's Guides, Inc., Dept. 6608, P.O. Box 2123, Princeton NJ 08543-2123.
    Current edition. Lists firms found in no other directory, covering industries such as environmental consulting, genetic engineering, alternative energy systems, health care, telecommunications, on-line services, educational and training software, and more

  14. Mort, Mary-Ellen, Reaching the Hidden Job Market: Research Strategies & Resources. Oakland, CA: M.E. Mort, 1992.

  15. How to Get Interviews & Organizing Your Time: Getting Interviews in the Hidden Job Market. Audiovisual. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1992. To get a list of current materials, and to order, contact JIST at 720 North Park Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2431, phone (800) 648-JIST; fax (800) JIST-FAX.

  16. Bard, Ray and Elliott, Susan K., The National Directory of Corporate Training Programs. New York, NY: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1988.

  17. America's Top 300Jobs: A Complete Career Handbook. 4th edition. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1992. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  18. Career Guide To America’s Top Industries. 2nd edition. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22

  19. America's 50Fastest Growing Jobs.3rd edition. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  20. Figler, Howard, Liberal Education &Careers Today. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1989. For ordering information, see item number 16.

  21. Nadler, Burton Jay, Liberal Arts Jobs.Princeton, NJ: Peterson's Guides, Inc., 1989. For ordering information, see item # 20.

  22. Directory of Occupational Titles. 4th edition, revised. U.S. Department of Labor. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  23. Farr, J. Michael, The Complete Guide for Occupational Exploration. Indianapolis, IN: J IST Works, Inc., 1993. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    Organizes jobs listed in the U.S. Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles into clusters of related jobs.

Specific options

  1. Cowan, G., Good Works: A Guide to Careers in Social Change. 5th edition. New York, NY: Barricade Books, 1993.
    Considered the most useful reference guide to careers with organizations serving the public interest.

  2. Arden, Lynie, The Work-at-Home Sourcebook. Boulder, CO: Live Oak Publications, 1990.
    Provides information on over 1000 companies that have -work programs, with details on job descriptions, pay and benefits, how to apply and how to make the most of working at once you get the job.

  3. Ludden, LaVerne L., Mind Your Own Business!: Entrepreneur. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1994. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    Sourcebook for replacement, career counseling, and entrepreneurship programs.

  4. NCC/Reed Glenn, The Ten Best Opportunities for Starting a Business Today. Boulder, CO: Live Oak Publications, 1993.

  5. Harlow, Victoria, American Jobs Abroad. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press, 1994.
    Covers all aspects of finding a job abroad, then actually making the move and making the most of living abroad.

  6. Jones, Roger, How to Teach Abroad. New York, NY: Northcote House Publishers Ltd., 1989.

  7. Paradis, Adrian, Opportunities in Banking Careers. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 1993.

  8. MacLean, Janice, ed., Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company, Inc., 1993.

  9. Tuller, Lawrence, The Independent Consultant's Q&A Book. Holbrook, MA: Bob Adams, Inc., 1992. For ordering information, see item #19.

  10. Schrayer, Robert M., Opportunities in Insurance Careers. Lincolnwood IL: VGM Career Horizons, 1993.

  11. Fry, Ronald W., ed., Advertising Career Directory. Detroit MI: Gale Research Company, Inc., 1993.

  12. Fry , Ronald W., ed., Public Relations Career Directory. Detroit MI: Gale Research Company, Inc., 1993.

  13. Auer, J.T., The Joy of Selling. Ho1brook, MA: Bob Adams Press, 1991. For ordering information, see item #19.

  14. America’s Federal Jobs: A Complete Directory of Federal Career Opportunities. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1991. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  15. America's Top Office Management &Sales Jobs. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1994. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  16. Sacharov, Al, Offbeat Careers: The Directory of Unusual Work. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1988.

  17. Cauman, M. Garrett, "Getting a Teaching Job at a Community College." Chronicle of Higher Education, November 3, 1984.
    Hints on getting hired at two-year schools. Old but still germane.

  18. Girill, T. R., "Technical Communication and Philosophy." Pacifica (Society for Technical Communication), 21 November 1982.
    Use of philosophy to improve "problem-solving strategies and critical-thinking skills" in the field of technical communication. Old but still to the point.

  19. Ludden, La Verne L., Directory of Franchise Opportunities. Revised edition, Indianapolis IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1995. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  20. How To Get a Job in the NY Metropolitan Area. (Editions also available for Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Europe, Houston, Pacific Area, San Francisco, Seattle/Portland, Southern California, and Washington DC.) Washington DC: Surry Books, Inc. For a list of current materials, and to order, contact Surry Books, Inc., 230 East Ohio Street, Suite 120, Chicago, IL 60611, phone (312) 751- 7330.

  21. Job Bank Books. Available for Atlanta, Boston, the Carolinas, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Denver, Detroit, Florida, Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, New York, Ohio, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Francisco, St. Louis, Tennessee, and Washington DC. Holbrook, MA: Adams Media Corp. For ordering information, see item #19.

Career planning

  1. Bolles, Richard Nelson, What Color Is Your Parachute? Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1995.
    Sets out a step-by-step process to examine career goals and various factors involved in making career choices. Very practical with an abundance of exercises. Updated every November.

  2. Bolles, Richard Nelson, The Quick Job-Hunting Map. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1990.
    A condensed version of some of What Color Is Your Parachute?

  3. Crystal John C. and Richard Bolles, Where Do I Go From Here With My Life? Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1983.

  4. Cook, William A. and James C., Putting Liberal Arts to Work. Hooksett, NH: New England Center for Career Development, 1981.
    Assessing and selling skills developed in liberal arts learning.

  5. Breen, Paul, "Career-Related Liberal Arts Skills,", American Association for Higher Education, October 1981.

  6. Jacobson, Robert L., "Looking Beyond Academe: What Scholars Can Do When Their Careers Don't Work." The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 16, 1983.

  7. Harary, Keith, Ph.D., Who Do You Think You Are? San Francisco, CA: Harper, 1994.
    Provides a system of analyzing personalities that takes into account not only the individual's perceptions of himself/herself but also the assessments of the significant people (spouse, family, friends, and co- workers) in the individual's life. No other system, including Meyers Briggs and the MMPI, offers this rich, multidimensional feedback.

  8. Barrett, James, Test Your Own Job Aptitude. New York, NY: Penguin Books,1992.
    Tests in this book measure abilities (logical, numerical, verbal, abstract reasoning, technological skills, clerical skills) personality (according to 16 types) and motivation (28 combinations). The authors show how to weigh personality, motivation and individual interests and match the results against an extensive index of 400+ career choices.

  9. Farr, J. Michael, Occupational Clues: A Career Interest Survey. Indianapolis, IN:JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    Explores career alternatives using a thorough and well-researched process developed by the U.S. Department of Labor.

  10. Crane, Shena, What Do I Do Now? Making Sense of Today's Changing Workplace. Irvine, CA: Vista Press, 1994.
    Offers advice for those with particular concerns, like new college graduates, minorities, older workers, and women.

  11. Sher, Barbara, Wishcraft: How to Get What You Really Want. New York, NY:Ballantine Books, 1986.

  12. Sher, Barbara, I Could Do Anything If I Only Knew What It Was. New York, NY: Dell, 1994.

  13. Lathrop, Richard, Who's Hiring Who? 12th edition. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1989.

  14. Farr, J. Michael, Getting the Job You Really Want: A Step-by-Step Guide. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1995. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    A career planning and job search book that includes clear narrative, good examples, and lots of in-the-book activities.

  15. The JIST Video Guide for Occupational Exploration: Real People, Real Jobs, Real Information. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    Guided interviews with employees who describe what their jobs are like, how they got the job, training required, etc.

Mechanics of job seeking

  1. Nadler, Burton Jay, Liberal Arts Power! How to Sell It On Your Resume. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's Guides, Inc., 1985. For ordering information, see item #20.

  2. Farr, J. Michael, Getting the Job You Really Want: A Step-by-Step Guide. 3rd edition. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc., 1995. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  3. Messmer, Max, 50 Ways to Get Hired. Boulder, CO: Career Teach Publications, 1994.
    Important tips by the CEO of Robert Half International, Inc., a large, international placement and job-search firm.

  4. Weinstein, Bob, I'll Work for Free: A Short-Term Strategy for a Long-Term Payoff. New York NY: Holt, 1994.
    Outlines strategies for working for free for a short time in order to prove yourself and get your foot in the door.

  5. Crowther, Karme, Researching Your Way to a Good Job. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1993.
    Shows how to gain a competitive advantage in the job market through focused research.

  6. Kennedy, Joyce, Electronic Resume Revolution; Create a Winning Resume for the New World of Job Seeking. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1993.

  7. Parker, Yana, The Resume Catalog: 200 Damn Good Examples. Berkeley CA: Ten Speed Press, 1988.
    Provides a large variety of excellent examples of resumes.

  8. Noble, David F., Gallery of Best Resumes. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, 1994. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  9. Krannich, Ronald, Dynamite Cover Letters. Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publishing, 1994. 2nd edition.
    Outlines the major principles for writing outstanding letters relevant to conducting an effective job search.

  10. Beatty, Richard H., The Perfect Cover Letter. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1989.
    Provides nuts and bolts of what to say and not say, along with examples.

  11. Stoodley, Martha, Information Interviewing. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1990. For ordering information, see item number 16.
    Provides practical, detailed advice on informational interviewing, including "scripts" to get people started.

  12. Jandt, Fred E. and Nemnich, Mary B., Using the Internet in Your Job Search: An Easy Guide to Online Job Seeking and Career Information. Indianapolis, IN: JISTWorks, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    Explains how to connect to the Internet, find job listings and research potential employers, use news groups to get leads, adapt standard resumes to an electronic format, and capture reader attention in the first screen.

Networking and other support

  1. Summer Jobs. Princeton NJ: Peterson's Guides, Inc. Published annually. For ordering information, see item # 20.
    A detailed guide to opportunities, who to contact, job qualifications, etc.

  2. Blum, Laurie, Free Money When You're Unemployed. New York NY: John Wiley, 1993.
    A source book on availability of foundation funds to help cover personal expenses; also includes contact and eligibility information, etc.

  3. Jud, Brian, Coping with Unemployment. Avon CT: Marketing Directions, Inc., 1993.

  4. Ludden, LaVerne L., Back to School: A College Primer for Adults. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.

  5. Clearing the Hurdles: Dealing With Job Loss. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.
    One of a series of 5 videos that make up the video series "Your Life's Work."

  6. Jobst, Katherine and Rushing, Brian, 1997 Internships. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books.
    This book brings together information on over 1,700 organizations that offer paid and unpaid internships. Covers whom to contact, qualificationsneeded, job descriptions, how and when to apply, pay and fringe benefits and long-term possibilities. Includes articles on interviewing for the internship, developing your career through international internship opportunities, more. Revised annually.

  7. Transitions: Choices for Mid-Career Changers. Video. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, Inc. For ordering information, see item number 22.

Employment of specific populations

  1. Mikens, Ed, The 100Best Companies for Gay Men and Lesbians. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1994.

  2. Minority Organizations: A National Directory. 4th edition. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1992. For ordering information, see item number 16.
    Definitive directory to all types of minority organizations.

  3. Grahm, Lawrence, The Best Companies for Minorities. New York, NY: Plume, 1993.
    Provides reports of facts, anecdotal information, and detailed advice culled from insiders who hire at the companies and from current employees. Tips on how minorities should prepare and package themselves for the job hunt plus an overview of each company and its company culture, statistics about the racial makeup of the company, etc.

  4. Rivera, Miguela,Minority Career Book. Holbrook, MA: Bob Adams, Inc., 1991. For ordering information, see item #19.

  5. Johnson, Willis L., ed., Directory of Special Programs for Minority Group Members. 5th edition. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1990. For ordering information, see item number 16.

  6. Cole, Katherine W., ed., Minority Organizations: A National Directory. 4th edition. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1992. For ordering information, see item number 16.

  7. The Black Resource Guide. Black Resource Guide, Inc., Washington, DC, 1993.

  8. Witt, Melanie Astaire, Job Strategies for People With Disabilities: Enable Yourself for Today's Job Market. Princeton NJ: Peterson's Guides, Inc., 1992. For ordering information, see item #20.
    Shows how to uncover the best career possibilities, determine job accommodations for various positions, discover marketable skills -and make interviewers see them and locate resources to ease the move into the job market.

  9. Zeith, Baila and Dusky, Lorraine, The Best Companies for Women. NewYork, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

  10. Doss, Martha Merrill, ed., The Directory of Special Opportunities for Women. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press 1981. For ordering information, see item number 16.

  11. Leape, Martha, The Harvard Guide to Careers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Adult development and coping with change

  1. Bridges, William, Transitions: Making Sense of Life’S Changes. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,1980.
    Describes what happens when one is in transition; provides recognizable benchmarks and suggestions for handling transitions.

  2. Freedman, Mervin, et al., Academic Culture and Faculty Development. Berkeley CA: Montaigne, 1979.
    Shows how the academic environment influences faculty personal and professional beliefs and actions.

  3. Sarason, Seymour B., Work, Aging, and Social Change. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1979.
    Subtitled "Professionals and the One Life-One Career Imperative," it addresses "the calling" people follow in moving into academia. Finding satisfaction in work is a central theme, and various examples of professionals moving away from academia to find meaning are provided.

  4. Levinson, Daniel J., The Seasons of a Man's Life. New York NY 1986. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf,, 1986.
    Levinson studied the lives of forty men as the basis for his stages of adult development.

  5. Levinson, Daniel J., The Seasons of a Woman's Life. New York, NY: Knopf, 1996.

  6. Covey, Stephen R., The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1989.

Additional sources of information on employment in the federal government

  1. Federal Career Opportunities. Federal Research Service, Vienna, VA.
    A bi-weekly register of government jobs listing thousands of federal positions in the U.S. and overseas.

  2. Federal Jobs Digest. Millwood, NY. Bimonthly listing of available federal jobs.

  3. Government Jobfinder. Planning/Communications, River Forest IL, 1992.
    Guide to finding employment in federal, state, or local government.

  4. Parnes, Jeff, ed., The Complete Guide to Washington Internships. Holbrook, MA: Bob Adams, Inc., 1990. For ordering information, see item #19.
    Provides information about 6,000 internships in government and the private sector in Washington, DC as well as about the applications process and living in Washington.

  5. Makower, Joel, ed., Capitol Jobs. Washington, DC: Tilden Press. For a list of current materials, and to order, contact Tilden Press, 1526 Connecticut Avenue NW, 3rd Floor, Washington, DC 20036.
    A reference guide of positions on Capitol Hill, their duties and salaries.

  6. Department of Defense Jobs. Write to Library of Congress Employment Office, James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM-107, Washington, DC 20540.
    Department of State Jobs.
    Write to Special Recruitment Branch, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520. Be sure to inquire about the Foreign Service Written Examination, traditionally given in the fall of each year.

  7. Federal Jobs Available in Your Local Area. Contact office of your state's members of the U.S. Congress.

  8. Federal Job Information Service. Call (202) 737-9616 or check for a local number under "Personnel Management Office of Federal Jobs" in the Federal Government listings in your area's telephone book.

  9. Library of Congress Jobs. Write to Library of Congress Employment Office, James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM-107, Washington, DC 20540.

  10. Office of Personnel Management. Write for a brochure on "Working for the USA " from Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC 20415.

  11. Summer Employment with the Federal Government. To obtain the booklet "Summer Jobs -Opportunities in the Federal Government," call the offices of your state's members of Congress or the U.S. Federal Job Information Service number listed above. A special section is devoted to positions available for persons holding advanced degrees.

  12. Washington Metropolitan Area Jobs: Call (202) 632-5659.

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